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SUBTAXA PRESENT IN BC
Actaea elata var. elata
Tall bugbane is a Pacific Northwest endemic species that ranges from Oregon north to British Columbia. In BC, it is restricted to the Chilliwack area south of the Fraser River. It is a rare, tall, perennial understorey species of moist areas in old growth and mature forests. It is a species of mixed forests, where it shows preference for benches. Although tall bugbane is a rhizomatous species, rhizomes are short, dark.and tuberous and reproduction is primarily by seed. Tall bugbane was first reported in BC from the Chilliwack River by Macoun in 1901 (Penny and Douglas 1999). Tall bugbane is distinctive when in flower, with tall panicles of white flowers on 4-14 raceme-like branches present in summer.
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General: Perennial herb from a woody rhizome; stems erect, branched above, 120-180 cm tall, sparsely minutely-hairy to woolly-hairy, glandular, especially above.
Leaves: Alternate, stalked, the stalks to 40 cm long, angled, grooved on stem side, basal wings clasping stem; leaves large, to 80 cm long, twice 3-parted, leaflets heart-egg-shaped, 5-18 cm long, 7-23 cm wide, usually 3-lobed and again shallowly and irregularly lobed and toothed, the teeth gland-tipped, palmately veined, pointy-tipped, fine-hairy beneath, smooth above, margins fringed.
Flowers: Inflorescence a terminal cluster of 4- to 14-flowered, raceme-like branches, 7-17 cm long, the inflorescence stalks subtended by 3 bracts, the central bract largest, lance awl-shaped; inflorescence glandular-hairy; flower stalks 1-8 mm long; petals absent; sepals 5, white or pinkish, egg-shaped, early deciduous; stamens 20-30, cream-coloured, showy, the outer sometimes broadened; pistils 1 to 3, glandular-hairy.
Fruits: Follicles, usually 1 in upper flowers, often 2 or rarely 3 in lower flowers of racemes, oblong, 8-12 mm long, somewhat flattened, thin-walled, finely glandular-hairy; unstalked or stalks to 2 mm long; seeds reddish to purplish-brown, lens-shaped, about 2
This species shows a marked preference for benches in the Chilliwack area.
Smaller non-flowering plants can be confused with baneberry (Actaea rubra), and the small semi-dormant plants reported by Kaye (pers. comm. 2003) can be difficult to spot (Klinkenberg and Klinkenberg 2003). However, when in flower, this large plant with its white spray of flowers is readily identified.
Penny, J.L., and G.W. Douglas. 2001. COSEWIC status report on the tall bugbane Cimicifuga elata in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the tall bugbane Cimicifuga elata in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. Available online.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2015. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
01/07/2016 8:12:11 AM
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