General: Stout perennial herb from a taproot; stems 1-3 m, glabrous, hollow, arising from erect, tuberous, chambered stem-base, often purplish and glaucous.
Leaves: Stem leaves compound with three major divisions that are in turn divided again; primary divisions bent back (not directed forward as in other similar species); leaf axis bent; leaflets reflexed, oblong to lanceolate, 4-10 cm long.
Flowers: Inflorescence terminal, of umbrella-like clusters; flowers white or pinkish; involucral bracts lacking.
Fruits: Rounded, 3-4 mm long, glabrous, with broadly winged lateral ribs.
A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to montane, Asian and Western North American forb distributed more in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region. Occurs in cool temperate and cool mesothermal climates on wet to very wet, nitrogen-rich soils (Moder and Mull humus forms): its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Common in open-canopy red alder, Sitka spruce, and western redcedar stands on water-collecting sites with gleysolic or organic soils. Often associated with Athyrium filix-femina and Lysichitum americanum. Inhabits depressions with a surface groundwater table. A nitrophytic species characteristic of nutrient-rich wetlands.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2020-09-20 7:41:28 PM
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