Perennial herb from a rhizome; stems erect to spreading, glabrous, 0.3-1.0 m tall, branching; plants with milky juice.
Opposite, stalked to subsessile or sessile, oblong-egg-shaped or lanceolate, yellow-green, 5-11 cm long, except sometimes the basal leaves stalked but not heart-shaped at the base, ascending.
Inflorescence of compound, flat-topped clusters; corollas greenish-white to white, 2-4.5 mm long, the corollas less than twice as long as calyx, lobes erect or slightly spreading.
Long cylindric pods, usually greater than 12-18 cm long, sickle-shaped; seeds with tufts of cottony hairs (coma) 2-3 cm long.
The recognition of A. sibiricum and its segregates does not appear warranted.
If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.
Illustration Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
Present from Summer to Fall
Source: The USDA
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
|BG(11), ICH(5), IDF(8), MS(1), PP(3)|
Source: Klinkenberg 2013
Synonyms and Alternate Names:
Apocynum cannabinum var. angustifolium (Woot.) N.H. Holmgren
Apocynum cannabinum var. glaberrimum A. DC.
Apocynum cannabinum var. greeneanum (Bég. & Beloserky) Woodson
Apocynum cannabinum var. hypericifolium (Aiton) A. Gray
Apocynum cannabinum var. nemorale (G.S. Mill.) Fernald
Apocynum cannabinum var. pubescens (Mitchell ex R. Br.) Woodson
Apocynum cannabinum var. suksdorfii (Greene) Bég. & Beloserky
Apocynum hypericifolium Aiton
Apocynum pubescens Mitchell ex R. Br.
Apocynum sibiricum Jacq.
Apocynum sibiricum var. cordigerum (Greene) Fernald
Apocynum sibiricum var. farwellii (Greene) Fernald
Apocynum sibiricum var. salignum (Greene) Fernald
Apocynum suksdorfii Greene
Apocynum suksdorfii var. angustifolium (Woot.) Woodson
1. Corollas greenish-white to white, 2-4.5 mm long, usually less than twice as long as the calyces; leaves ascending................. A. cannabinum
1. Corollas pinkish, 3.5-10 mm long, usually more than twice as long as the calyces; leaves spreading to drooping.
2. Calyces usually at least half as long as the corollas, lobes abruptly sharp-pointed to long-pointed ............................x A. floribundum
2. Calyces usually less than half as long as the corollas, lobes obtuse .....................A. androsaemifolium