General: Robust perennial herb from stout short-creeping rhizome; stems several, erect to ascending, 1-2 m tall, smooth.
Leaves: Alternate, 10-60 cm long, long-stalked, the lower leaves usually three times compound, the leaflets egg-shaped to narrowly oblong, sharply double-toothed and pointed, 3-15 cm long, the upper leaves smaller and less compounded; green and usually smooth above, hairy and paler below.
Flowers: Inflorescence a large, elongated, terminal panicle with numerous spike-like branches of tiny, short-stalked flowers; male and female flowers on separate plants; corollas white, the petals 5, oblong to egg-shaped, about 1 mm long; calyces 5-toothed, the teeth shorter than the petals; ovaries superior; pistils 3 (4 or 5) in female flowers; stamens 15 to 30 in male flowers.
Fruits: Follicles, bent back, more or less cylindric, somewhat leathery, straw-coloured, smooth, about 3 mm long; seeds 2 to 4 per follicle, about 2 mm long.
A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to subalpine, circumpolar forb distributed in the Pacific, Cordilleran (less frequently), and Atlantic North America. Occurs on fresh to very moist, nitrogen-rich soils within boreal, cool temperate, and cool mesothermal climates. Commonly inhabits exposed mineral soil on water-receiving flooded sites. Scattered in earlyseral herbaceous communities in the proximity of intermittent or permanent waterways and run-off channels on steep, often shallow and rocky, colluvial slopes; less frequent in opencanopy, steep-gradient, streamedge forests. A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms
Moist to wet ravines, rocky ledges, avalanche tracks, streambanks, forest edges and openings in the low land and montane zones; common in BC south of 55degreeN, rare northward; circumboreal, N to AK and S to CA; Eurasia.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2013. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
5/23/2013 9:33:20 PM
The information contained in the E-Flora atlas pages is derived from expert
sources as cited in each section. This information is scientifically based.
E-Flora also acts as a portal to other sites via deep links. As
always, users should refer to the original sources for complete information.
E-Flora BC is not responsible for the accuracy or completeness of the