General: Deciduous perennial arising from a short, stout rhizome.
Leaves: Numerous, in vase-like tufts, 30-180 cm long, 10-70 cm wide, broadly lanceolate, broadest in the middle and gradually narrowed both to the base and to the top, 2-pinnate with pinnae divided into numerous ultimate segments.
Mesic to wet alluvial forests, glades, streambanks, gullies, slidetracks, meadows, swamps and rock outcrops from the lowland and steppe to alpine zones; common throughout BC; amphiberingian, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to SD, NM, AZ and CA; E Asia.
A shade-tolerant, submontane to montane, circumpolar fern distributed in Pacific, Cordilleran, and Atlantic North America. Occurs on very moist to wet, nitrogen-rich soils within boreal, temperate, and mesothermal climates. Plentiful to abundant (occasionally dominant) in non-forested communities or forest understories on water-receiving (alluvial, floodplain, seepage, and stream-edge) sites; often inhabits water-collecting (swamps and fens) sites. A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
21/06/2018 1:12:40 PM
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