Usually on decaying wood of stumps or logs, or peat-like turf, occasionally on rock, tree trunks and disturbed mineral soil. Frequent on fence posts, rail fences and charred stumps. Common near the coast in both woodland and open areas from sea level to subalpine; less common in the interior. World Distribution
Circumboreal, also in southern South America; in North America across the northern portion of the continent and extending southward to West Virginia in the east and California in the west.