General: Evergreen shrub 0.5-2 m tall; stems numerous, prostrate to erect, green, minutely hairy to smooth.
Leaves: Alternate, the blades egg-shaped to elliptic, 5-10 cm long, smooth, shiny above, often tinged with brown and sticky above, greyish-hairy to smooth below, finely toothed; stalks 1-2 cm long; stipules 1 mm long, deciduous.
Fruits: Capsules, 4-5 mm long, 3-lobed, separating into 3, dehiscent, rounded carpels, the carpels slightly crested above; seeds 1 per carpel.
Notes: Two varieties occur in BC.
1. Leaves smooth on lower surface, at least on the veins; plants occurring W of the Coast-Cascade Mountains....................var. hookeri M. C. Johnson
1. Leaves finely short -hairy on lower surface; plants occurring E of the Coast-Cascade Mountains......................var. velutinus
A shade-intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Cordilleran North American evergreen shrub. Occurs in continental cool temperate and cool semiarid climates on moderately dry to fresh, nitrogenmedium soils, sites. Scattered to abundant in early-seral communities on disturbed, water-shedding sites; its occurrence increases with increasing continentality (occasional in the coastal-interior ecotone). When forming a shrub layer, it hinders natural regeneration and growth of shadeintolerant conifers. Symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria enhances the supply of available soil nitrogen. Characteristic of continental forests.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2021-01-19 8:20:15 PM
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