Aquatic herb, usually without roots; stems freely branching, 0.3-4.0 m long.
Stem leaves submerged, in whorls of 5-12, 2-3 times forked into linear or threadlike segments, these often stout, stiff and spiny-toothed.
Inflorescence of solitary, minute, axillary flowers; petals lacking; sepals 3-15, sometimes petal-like; stamens 12-16.
Achenes usually lacking, if present then much flattened, 4-6 mm long, ellipsoid, wingless with a persistent style and 2 basal spines.
If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.
Illustration Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
Present from Summer to Fall
Source: The USDA
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
|CDF(3), CWH(2), ICH(1), IDF(1), SBPS(7)|
Source: Klinkenberg 2013
Synonyms and Alternate Names:
Ceratophyllum apiculatum Cham.
Ceratophyllum demersum var. apiculatum (Cham.) Asch.
Ceratophyllum demersum var. apiculatum (Cham.) Garcke
TAXONOMIC KEY TO CERATOPHYLLUM
1. Fruits wing-margined, with several lateral spines; leaf divisions fine, threadlike, sometimes with fine teeth C. echinatum
1. Fruits wingless, with only two basal spines; leaf divisions stout, stiff, with distinct teeth C. demersum