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Summary: Features include small size; thin, pleated, buff to yellow brown cap usually with darker center, toward the margin becoming grayish as it ages; free gills attached to a collar round the stem and withering when old; stem that is fragile, thin, white to buff, and smooth; black spore deposit; and growth on the ground. Parasola plicatilis was in Section Hemerobi of Coprinus sensu lato. Parasola plicatilis is the more recently published name based on molecular evidence (Redhead(49)). The description is derived from Arora(1) except where noted. It has been reported from BC (Roberts, C.(1)) and CA (Arora). There is a collection at Oregon State University from OR, and the University of Washington has collections from WA, AK, and UT. It is widespread in North America: Breitenbach(4) give distribution as North America, Europe, Asia, North Africa, and Australia.
Cap: 1-3cm across when expanded, 0.5-1.5cm high when young, oval or cylindric to conic when young, broadly convex or flat when old; buff to yellow brown, usually with darker (cinnamon brown or fulvous) center, when old becoming grayish except for center; "deeply grooved (pleated) nearly to center", margin sometimes recurved [upturned] when old
Flesh: very thin, fragile
Gills: free but attached to a collar around top of stem, well-spaced, narrow; "soon gray and eventually black, but tending to wither rather than liquefy"
Stem: 3-7.5cm x 0.1-0.3cm, thin, hollow, more or less equal, very fragile; white or buff; smooth
Veil: none (Breitenbach)
Odor: none (Miller)
Taste: mild (Miller)
Microscopic spores: spores 10-13 x 6.5-10 microns, broadly elliptic, smooth, (Arora), spores 9.6-13.3 x 5.9-8.4 x 8.5-10.3 microns, miter-shaped to lentiform [lens-shaped] in front view, elliptic in side view, smooth, dark red-brown, with eccentric germ pore; basidia 4-spored, 25-40 x 11-16 microns, clavate, without basal clamp; pleurocystidia 70-125 x 20-35 microns, cylindric to ventricose, cheilocystidia 35-60 x 16-25 microns, lageniform to clavate or vesicular; cap cuticle of vesicular cells 25-40 x 14-25 microns, some septa with clamps, (Breitenbach), spores 9.5-13 x 6-8 x 8.5-10.5 microns, lentil-shaped, (Trudell)
Spore deposit: black (Lincoff(2))
Habitat / Range
single, scattered or in small groups in grass, in woods, along paths etc., (Arora), single to numerous in grass and lawns, May to September, (Lincoff(2)), spring, summer, fall
Parasola leiocephala (P.D. Orton) Redhead, Vilgalys & Hopple, found at least in California (where it had often been referred to as Parasola plicatilis), can be reliably differentiated by its smaller spores 8.0-11.0 x 7.0-9.5 x 5.0-7.5 microns, (P. plicatilis is said to be slightly smaller, more grayish, and more restricted to grassy habitats, whereas P. leiocephala is more ecologically variable), (MykoWeb). P. plicatilis is like some other coprinoid species but lacks the cap patches and hairs that many of them have.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2019. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
18/11/2019 6:57:41 AM
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