E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Corylus cornuta var. californica Marshall (A. DC.) Sharp
beaked hazelnut (California hazelnut)
Betulaceae (Birch family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Brian Klinkenberg  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #15712)

E-Flora BC Static Map
Distribution of Corylus cornuta var. californica
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend
Details about map content are available here
New! Click on the map dots to view record details.

Species Information

Click on the image below to view an expanded illustration for this species.



General:
Deciduous shrub, 1-3 m tall with many stems, densely clumped or spreading by suckers; twigs sparsely to moderately hairy, sometimes glandular.
Leaves:
Alternate, deciduous, elliptic to oval, leaf blades heart-shaped with a sharp-pointed tip, doubly saw-toothed, paler below than above, 4-10 cm long, turning yellow in the fall.
Flowers:
Male flowers in catkins appearing before the leaves in spring; female flowers in a very small catkin with protruding red stigmas.
Fruits:
Edible hard-shelled nuts completely enclosed by bristly bractlets, in 2's or 3's at the end of branches, barely 1.5 cm long, thinly hairy or glabrous.
Notes:
Two varieties occur in BC:

1. Involucral beaks about twice as long as the fruit; silicles thinly short-hairy; twigs sparsely hairy............... var. cornuta

1. Involucral beaks about equal in length to the fruit; silicles glabrous; twigs hairy, sometimes glandular............... var. californica (A. DC.) Sharp

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

USDA Species Characteristics

Flower Colour:
Yellow
Blooming Period:
Early Spring
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Spring to Fall
Source:  The USDA

Habitat / Range

Mesic sites in the lowland and montane zones; var. cornuta - common south of 57degreeN east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains, var. californica - frequent on S Vancouver Island and the lower Fraser Valley, becoming rare to the east; E to NF and S to GA (var. cornuta) and E to ID and S to CA (var. californica).

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Ecology

Ecological Framework for Corylus cornuta var. californica

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class

Minimum

Average

Maximum

Elevation (metres) 366 707 957
Slope Gradient (%) 0 22 81
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
0 146 350
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
2 4 5
Modal Nutrient Regime
Class
D
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
54
Modal BEC Zone Class
ICH
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: ICH(51), IDF(3)

Climate

The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Corylus californica (A. DC.) Rose
Corylus cornuta subsp. californica (A. DC.) E. Murr.
Corylus cornuta var. glandulosa B. Boivin

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

Related Databases

General References