General: Annual or biennial herb from a taproot; stems erect, solitary or branched from base, 15-80 cm tall, minutely hairy with stiff hairs, 4-angled.
Leaves: Opposite, lanceolate to narrowly egg-shaped, 2.5-8 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, coarsely toothed with the teeth often spine-tipped, minutely short-hairy beneath, stalked; lower leaves smaller, broader, and soon deciduous.
Flowers: Inflorescence of crowded, dense spikes, 1.5-3.5 cm broad, often interrupted below, the terminal segment 2-10 cm long; bracts leaf-like, mostly 1-3 cm long, unstalked or nearly so, toothed, the teeth with spines; flowers short-stalked, numerous at each whorl; corollas tubular, blue or purplish to pinkish, slightly exceeding the calyces, with 2 short lips, the lower lip 3-lobed; calyces 8-14 mm long, long soft-hairy, the tube about equaling the 5 spine-tipped teeth, the upper tooth egg-shaped and longer than others.
Moist to mesic waste places, roadsides, rocky slopes, cutbanks and streambanks in the lowland and montane zones; infrequent throughout BC; N to AK, YT and NT, E to PQ and S to NY, MO, NE, NM, AZ and OR.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2019. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2020-02-19 9:44:06 PM
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