Galeopsis tetrahit L.
hemp-nettle (brittlestem hempnettle)
Lamiaceae (Mint family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants


© Brian Klinkenberg     (Photo ID #21142)


E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Galeopsis tetrahit
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend

Species Information

Annual herb from a taproot; stems erect, 20-80 cm tall, coarse, branched when well developed, 4-angled, bristly-hairy, including red-tipped glandular-hairs, below nodes.
Opposite, egg-shaped to lanceolate, 3-10 cm long, 1-5 cm wide, coarsely blunt-toothed, tips pointed, bases rounded or wedge-shaped, stiff-hairy; stalked.
Inflorescence of several dense axillary flower clusters, subtended by upper leaves; corollas tubular, purple or pink or white with dark markings, 15-23 mm long, the upper lip arched and entire, the lower 3-lobed, spreading, the middle lobe flat, entire, often nearly as wide as long, bearing 2 nipple-like protuberences on the upper side near base, its network of dark markings restricted to the base, not reaching the margins; calyces about 1 cm long at flowering, somewhat larger in fruit, the erect spine-tipped teeth about equaling tube, the tube strongly 5-ribbed, hairy within; stamens 4, anthers hairy.
Nutlets, 4 clustered together, egg-shaped, 3-4 mm long, smooth.
Galeopsis tetrahit originated from G. pubescens Bess. and G. speciosa Mill. by hybridization and polyploidy. The species may have arisen more than once, and may owe some of its variability to various origins.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.


Ecological Framework for Galeopsis tetrahit

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres)
817 38 1310
Slope Gradient (%)
5 0 28

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

148 40 208
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
5 3 7
Modal Nutrient Regime
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

CWH(1), ICH(3), IDF(4), MS(1), SBS(3)

Habitat and Range

Moist to mesic waste places and forest margins in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; frequent throughout BC south of 56degreeN; introduced from Eurasia.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia