Moist to wet rocky forests, bog margins, and rocky ledges in the montane and subalpine zones; frequent east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains; circumpolar, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to PA and MI; Eurasia.
A shade-tolerant, submontane to subalpine, circumpolar fem (transcontinental in North America). Occurs on fresh to very moist, nitrogen-rich soils within boreal, cool temperate, and cool mesothermal climates. Its occurrence increases with increasing precipitation, latitude, and continentality, and decreases with increasing temperature. Scattered to plentiful in forests on water-receiving (floodplain, seepage, and stream-edge) sites. Often associated with Athyrium filixfemina, Oplopanax honidus, Streptopus roseus, and Tiarella unifoliata. Characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2020-07-03 5:32:38 PM
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