General: Perennial herb from short, thick rhizomes; stems erect, 15-90 cm tall, smooth to finely glandular-hairy or stiff-hairy below, glandular-hairy above, naked or with 1 to 3 brownish or greenish bracts.
Leaves: Basal leaves egg-shaped to nearly heart- or kidney-shaped, 1-6 cm wide, shorter or longer than wide, palmately-lobed, the lobes round-toothed, smooth or finely glandular-hairy to stiff-hairy; long-stalked, the stalks smooth to minutely glandular short-hairy or with conspicuous white hairs intermixed with short glandular hairs; stem leaves lacking; stipules membranous, fused to the leaf stalks.
Flowers: Inflorescence spike-like, becoming open, 3-12 (20) cm long; petals white to greenish-yellow, 5, often absent or partly absent, linear, much shorter than calyx lobes; calyces greenish-yellow to cream-coloured, narrowly bell-shaped, joined to ovary almost to top, the free hypanthium slightly to strongly lop-sided, equal to or longer than part joined to ovary, lined with a thin to thick, somewhat glandular disk, calyx lobes 5, oblong-lanceolate to egg-shaped and overlapping, erect, longer than the hypanthium; stamens 5, opposite and shorter than calyx lobes.
Fruits: Capsules, 6-10 mm long, opening along the beaks; seeds dark brown, 0.6-0.9 mm long, with lengthwise rows of slender, straight to curved spines.
Notes: Four intergrading and largely sympatric varieties occur in BC .
1. Leaf stalks smooth to minutely glandular-short-hairy; plants mainly of SE BC.
2. Largest leaves 3.2-8.0 cm long, the teeth not or only slightly mucronate...................var. glabella (T.& G.) Wheelock
2. Largest leaves 2.2-4.8 cm long, the teeth usually strongly mucronate......................var. septentrionalis Rosend., Butters & Lakela
1. Leaf stalks generally with conspicuous white hairs intermixed with short glandular hairs; plants mainly of SC BC.
3. Largest leaves 3.0-8.5 cm long, the bases slightly to strongly heart-shaped ..........................var. cylindrica
3. Largest leaves 2.0-6.0 cm long, the bases squared-off or slightly heart-shaped..........................var. orbicularis (Rosend., Butters & Lakela) Calder & Savile
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
15/02/2019 3:12:40 PM
The information contained in the E-Flora atlas pages is derived from expert
sources as cited in each section. This information is scientifically based.
E-Flora also acts as a portal to other sites via deep links. As
always, users should refer to the original sources for complete information.
E-Flora BC is not responsible for the accuracy or completeness of the