E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Juncus balticus Willd.
Baltic rush
Juncaceae (Rush family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Jim Riley  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #745)

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Distribution of Juncus balticus
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Species Information

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Perennial herb from long, creeping rhizomes; stems arising singly, not densely clustered, round, usually straight, smooth, wiry, erect, 40-60 cm tall.
Reduced to small sheaths at the base of the stem; sheaths shiny brown.
Inflorescence nodding, with 8 to 20 light-coloured flowers on branches 4-8 cm long, appearing as if on the side of the stem, located closer to the upper third of the stem; perianth segments dark with translucent margins, reddish-brown, 3.2-4.7 mm long, pointed, the outer about equal to the inner segments; stamens 6; anthers longer than or equal to the filaments; involucral bract 5-20 cm long, cylindrical, resembling a continuation of the stem, shorter than the stem.
Capsules, with blunt tips, about equal to the perianth segments or slightly longer; seeds spindle-shaped, 0.8-1 mm long, lacking tail-like appendages.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Lakeshores and sandy river bars in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; frequent throughout BC; circumpolar, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to ME, PA, VA, OH, IN, AR, TX, NM, AZ and CA; Eurasia.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Ecological Framework for Juncus balticus

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres) 0 863 2100
Slope Gradient (%) 0 4 56
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
1 145 360
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
0 5 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: BAFA(1), BG(31), BWBS(2), CDF(36), CWH(15), ESSF(17), ICH(2), IDF(158), MS(5), PP(18), SBPS(31), SBS(1)


The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Juncus arcticus subsp. littoralis (Engelm.) Hultén
Juncus vallicola

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References