Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.
oxeye daisy
Asteraceae (Aster family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

Photograph

© Vanessa Robinson     (Photo ID #79138)


Map

E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Leucanthemum vulgare
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend

Introduction

Ox-eye daisy is a highly abundant introduced European species that is now found across continental North America. It is reported from all US states and all Canadian provinces, exclusive of Nunavut. In BC, it is found in all regions of the province in lowland, steppe and montane zones, from low elevation to a reported maximum of approximately 1800 m in forested sites (see table below for the BEC plot data for this species). Elsewhere it is reported from elevations up to 2000 m (Strother 2010). Ox-eye daisy is an easy to identify perennial rhizomatous member of the daisy family (Asteraceae). Plants are 10-30 (100) cm tall, with often spatulate-shaped basal leaves, and one to several simple or branched stems. Flowers are relatively large white 'daisies' that are solitary on each branch or stem. Each flowerhead can produce up to 200 seeds (Invasive.org 2010). This species can tolerate a range of soil types, and can grow in sun or partial shade. In June, when in flower, this species is very visible along roadsides, in pastures, and in other disturbed sites. In older publications, the scientific name used for this species is Chrysanthemum leucanthemum.

Species Information

General:
Perennial herb from a creeping rhizome; stems erect, solitary to several, sparingly branched, usually glabrous, with a sage-like odour, 20-80 cm tall.
Leaves:
Basal leaves alternate, egg-shaped to spoon-shaped, stalked, pinnately lobed or toothed, 4-15 cm long; stem leaves reduced and becoming unstalked and nearly entire upwards.
Flowers:
Heads with ray and disk flowers, solitary at the ends of branches; involucres 7-11 mm tall; involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate, with a narrow, dark-brown submarginal area; ray flowers white, 12-20 mm long; disk flowers yellow.
Fruits:
Achenes cylindric or nearly so, black, 10-ribbed; pappus lacking. vol1_6

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Illustration

If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.

USDA Species Characteristics

Flower Colour:
White
Blooming Period:
Summer
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall
Source:  The USDA

Ecology

Ecological Framework for Leucanthemum vulgare

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class

Avg

Min

Max

Elevation (metres)
976 5 1928
Slope Gradient (%)
13 0 68

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

188 0 338
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
4 1 7
Modal Nutrient Regime
Class
C
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
163
Modal BEC Zone Class
IDF

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

CDF(1), CWH(14), ESSF(12), ICH(28), IDF(46), MS(31), PP(2), SBPS(1), SBS(22)

Habitat and Range

Mesic to dry roadsides, pastures and waste places in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; common throughout BC S of 56degreeN; introduced from Eurasia.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Synonyms

Synonyms and Alternate Names:
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. boecheri B. Boivin
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. pinnatifidum Lecoq & Lamotte
Leucanthemum leucanthemum (L.) Rydb.
Leucanthemum vulgare var. pinnatifidum (Lecoq & Lamotte) Moldenke

References

Strother, John L. 2010. Leucanthemum vulgare. Flora North America Online. Available Online.

Invasive.org. 2010. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Available Online.