General: Perennial herb from a slender rhizome; stems 10-35 cm tall, smooth.
Leaves: Leaves of flowering stems 1 to 3 (usually 2), alternate, broadly heart- to arrowhead-shaped, distinctly heart-shaped at the base, 5-12 cm long, about as wide, on 2- to 10-cm long stalks, smooth above and beneath, the margins entire, rough short-hairy; basal leaves lacking.
Flowers: Inflorescence a loose, cylindrical, terminal cluster of several to many spreading flowers; flowers cream to white, wheel-shaped, 5-8 mm across, of 4 similar, distinct tepals, the tepals oblong, blunt, 2- 3 mm long, becoming reflexed; stamens 4, shorter than tepals; pistil 1, 2-chambered.
Fruits: Berries, globe-shaped, spotted, red, 5-6 mm wide; seeds 1 to 4.
A shade-tolerant and ocean spray-tolerant, submontane to subalpine, Western North American forb distributed more in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region. Occurs in cool mesothermal climates on very moist to wet, nitrogen-rich soils (Moder or Mull humus forms); its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Scattered to plentiful in coniferous and broad-leaved forests on water-receiving and water-collecting sites, commonly found on stream-edge sites, floodplains, and sites affected by ocean spray. Grows with Blechnum spicant, Polystichum munitum, Tiarella trifoliata, 7rautvetteria caroliniensis, and Lysichitum americanum. Characteristic of alluvial floodplain forests.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2022-05-28 9:47:24 PM
The information contained in the E-Flora atlas pages is derived from expert
sources as cited in each section. This information is scientifically based.
E-Flora also acts as a portal to other sites via deep links. As
always, users should refer to the original sources for complete information.
E-Flora BC is not responsible for the accuracy or completeness of the