General: Annual or biennial herb from a fibrous root; stems erect, branched above, solitary or more usually several, glabrous, often glaucous, exuding milky juice when broken, 30-90 cm tall.
Leaves: Basal leaves lacking; stem leaves alternate; basal and lower leaves 6-18 cm long, 3-8 cm wide, pinnately cut with a broad, ivylike terminal segment, the bases with earlike and clasping flanges, glabrous, middle and upper leaves few and reduced.
Flowers: Heads with strap-shaped flowers, numerous in a rounded inflorescence; involucres 9-11 mm tall; involucral bracts in 2 series, the outer lanceolate, the inner much reduced, linear, glabrous or nearly so; ray flowers yellow, 5.
Fruits: Achenes several-nerved, approximately 4 mm long including the 1 mm long beak; pappus white.
A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to montane, European forb introduced to Pacific, Cordilleran, and Atlantic North America. Occurs in maritime to submaritime cool mesothermal climates on fresh to moist, nitrogen-rich soils; its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Frequent in semi-open, seral forests on disturbed water-shedding and water-receiving sites; common, occasionally dominant, in early-seral communities on cutover and burnt site (often inhabits exposed mineral soil). Often grows with Achlys triphylla, Epilobium angustifolium, Kindbergia oregana, Polystichum munitum, and Tiarella trifoliata. A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
20/04/2019 3:15:31 AM
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