A shade-tolerant, submontane to subalpine, Asian and North American deciduous shrub distributed equally in the Pacific, Cordilleran, and Central regions. Occurs on very moist to wet, nitrogen-rich soils within boreal, cool temperate, and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence increases with increasing precipitation and continentality. Common, often dominant. in semi-open forests on water-receiving (floodplain, seepage, and stream-edge) and water-collecting sites; occasional on watershedding sites when soils are calcareous. Typically associated with ferns (Athyrium filix-femina, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, and Polystichum munitum) and forbs (Actaea rubra, Galium triflorum, Tiarella trifoliata, and T. unifoliata). A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
24/09/2017 2:16:40 PM
The information contained in the E-Flora atlas pages is derived from expert
sources as cited in each section. This information is scientifically based.
E-Flora also acts as a portal to other sites via deep links. As
always, users should refer to the original sources for complete information.
E-Flora BC is not responsible for the accuracy or completeness of the