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Summary: member of P. campanulatus group, features include nearly hemispheric, grayish to whitish, often appendiculate cap that may crack when old, adnate, close, black-gray mottled gills with whitish edges, stem colored similarly to cap, habitat on dung or in grass, blackish spore deposit, and large elliptic to lemon-shaped spores; Stamets(1) and Breitenbach(4), following Gerhardt (1996), consider this species to include P. campanulatus (in the sense of most authors), P. sphinctrinus, and P. retirugis: his description is thus different from the ones given here from Menser(1), Moser(1), Hansen, L.(2), and Courtecuisse(1), which do not include those species; OR specimens at Oregon State University include collections labeled P. papilionaceus, P. campanulatus, P. sphinctrinus, and P. retirugis; BC specimens at University of British Columbia include collections labeled P. campanulatus, P. sphinctrinus, and P. retirugis; one of the most commonly found of dung-inhabiting Panaeolus taxa in the Pacific Northwest, Panaeolus acuminatus being as common, (Stamets), reported from WA by Andrew Parker, pers. comm.
Cap: 2-3cm across, subhemispheric [nearly hemispheric] when young, becoming broad as it ages; "pale gray, as it ages tinged pink, darker near the disc and shining when dry"; smooth or cracked, fragments from the partial veil may be attached or hanging from margin, (Menser), 2-3cm across, +/- hemispherical; whitish to grayish, ochraceous centrally; cracked when old, (Moser), 2-3cm high, bell-shaped to hemispheric; "whitish or very pale brownish"; "finally often cracking into irregular patches, margin dentate", (Hansen), whitish to dirty ivory, margin briefly fibrillose-toothed, (Courtecuisse), (1)2-5(6)cm across, obtusely conic, becoming bell-shaped when old, occasionally with obtuse umbo; not particularly hygrophanous, brownish to reddish brown, often with some grayish tones, "finally grayish cinnamon buff, while often staying more tawny at disc"; "moist to smooth when wet but soon dry", relatively smooth when young, may be finely wrinkled to horizontally cracked when very mature, exposing lighter colored flesh, margin decorated with whitish tooth-like remnants of the partial veil, (Stamets)
Flesh: thin and brittle (Menser), thickest under disc and thinning toward cap margin; nearly colored as cap, (Stamets)
Gills: adnate, close; edges white, (Menser), broad; black-gray, edges whitish, (Moser), adnate, broad, (Hansen), adnate (Courtecuisse), adnexed and soon seceding, close to subdistant, 1-2 tiers of subgills, gills moderately broad; "grayish at first, becoming mottled dark grayish black from the uneven ripening of the spores", (Stamets)
Stem: 4-5cm x 0.3-0.6cm, straight and equal, base somewhat widened, stem hollow; "whitish, darkening brown from the bottom up as it ages"; "smooth, shiny, covered with a white powder", (Menser), colored as cap (Moser), 4-6cm x 0.2-0.4cm, colored as cap, pruinose in upper part, (Hansen), up to 9cm long and 0.3cm wide, dingy white to grayish cream, (Courtecuisse), 6-14cm x 0.15-0.35(0.5)cm, equal, tubular, fibrous; brownish under a grayish pruinose surface; slightly striate toward top, (Stamets)
Veil: no ring (Menser)
Odor: weakly fungoid (Breitenbach)
Taste: mild, fungoid (Breitenbach)
Microscopic spores: spores 11-16 x 9-12 microns, (Moser), spores 11-17 x 8-11 microns, ellipsoid to citriform [lemon-shaped], (Hansen), spores 15-18 x 10-12 microns, oval to lemon-shaped; pleurocystidia absent, cheilocystidia 18-26 x 5-8 microns, "variable in form, from clavate to fusoid-ventricose with narrow apices", (Stamets for P. papilionaceus including other members of campanulatus group), spores 13-18.5 x 8.2-10.4 x 9.6-13 microns, lentiform (lens-shaped) in face view, elliptic-amygdaliform in side view, smooth, dark red-brown, with a germ pore; basidia 4-spored, 25-35 x 11-15 microns, cylindric, without basal clamp connection; pleurocystidia not seen, cheilocystidia 35-70 x 7-10 microns, cylindric-flexuous; cap cuticle hymeniform, composed of clavate cells 20-50 x 10-20 microns, occasional clamp connections present, (Breitenbach for P. papilionaceus including other members of campanulatus group)
Spore deposit: black (Stamets, Breitenbach), purple-black (Buczacki)
Habitat / Range
on dung (Menser), fields, tracks, dung, (Moser), on dung, from summer, (Hansen), dunged meadows, nitrogen-rich grassy places (Courtecuisse), scattered to gregarious on dung in fall or spring, (Stamets)
like Panaeolus campanulatus and P. sphinctrinus but Panaeolus papilionaceus sensu stricto is nearly hemispherical when young and pale gray as opposed to olive gray or gray brown, (Menser), Panaeolus retirugis has raised reticulations on cap, (Menser)
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
18/08/2019 8:05:55 AM
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