E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw.
goldenback fern
Pteridaceae (Maidenhair Fern family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Jeremy Gatten  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #9135)

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Distribution of Pentagramma triangularis
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Pentagramma triangularis ssp. triangularis

Species Information

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Evergreen perennial arising in clusters from a short, stout rhizome.
Leathery on stipes longer than blades, blades triangular, 3-15 cm long, 2-15 cm wide, with three pinnae that are pinnately divided into the ultimate segments; the lowermost segments elongated, all segments whitish-powdery underneath.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Dry rocky crevices in the lowland zone; infrequent on SE Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands and adjacent mainland coast; S to ID, NV and CA.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Ecological Framework for Pentagramma triangularis

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres) 31 264 1065
Slope Gradient (%) 8 45 84
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
123 189 270
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
1 2 5
Modal Nutrient Regime
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: CDF(7), SBS(1)


The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw.
Pityrogramma triangularis var. triangularis

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References