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Common plantain is a shade-intolerant, herbaceous perennial (sometimes annual) species with fibrous roots from a compact stem. Plants may be hirsute or glabrous. It is one of four species of Plantago found in BC and is widespread in the province. It is a common species on pathways and in areas of compacted soil across North America. It is a self-compatible, wind-pollinated, allergenic species that reproduces by seeds. Bassett (1973), in his monograph The Plantains of Canada indicated that the origin of this species had not been established and it was not known if it was native to North America or introduced. However, since that publication, many sources list it as an introduced species native to Eurasia (e.g. USDA 2010).
Bassett, I. John. 1973. The Plantains of Canada. Monograph No. 7. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.
USDA. 2010. Plantago major. United States Department of Agriculture Plants Database. Available Onliine.
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expanded illustration for this species.
General: Perennial herb from a fibrous root; stems erect, several, simple, smooth or stiff-hairy, 5-50 cm tall.
Leaves: Basal leaves broadly elliptic to lanceolate or egg-shaped, tapered into long stalk, entire or irregularly toothed, 4-18 cm long, 2.5-11 cm wide, strongly parallel-veined; stem leaves lacking.
Flowers: Inflorescence of dense, narrow, bracteate spikes, the spikes less than 1 cm thick, 5-30 cm long, smooth; corolla greenish, 4-lobed, the lobes deltoid, 0.4-0.5 mm long; bracts 2-4 mm long, thin-margined; stamens inconspicuous.
Fruits: Capsules, egg-shaped, 2.5-4 mm long; seeds 5-25, black or brown, 1 mm long, finely veined.
"The family Plantaginaceae includes three genera and an estimated 250-275 species from diverse habitats throughout the world (Pilger 1937). In Canada, the family is represented by two genera containing seven introduced species and ten native species" (Bassett 1973).
Bassett, I. John. 1973. The Plantains of Canada. Monograph No. 7. Canada Department of Agriculture.
Ecological Framework for Plantago major
The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range. (Updated August, 2013)
Plantago asiatica auct. non L. Plantago halophila E.P. Bicknell Plantago major subsp. intermedia (DC.) Arcang. Plantago major var. asiatica auct. non (L.) Decne. Plantago major var. intermedia (DC.) Pilg. Plantago major var. pachyphylla Pilg. Plantago major var. pilgeri Domin Plantago major var. scopulorum Fr. & Broberg
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
20/02/2018 9:13:18 PM
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