E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Primula egaliksensis Wormsk. ex Hornem.
Greenland primrose
Primulaceae

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Jamie Fenneman  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #25519)

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Distribution of Primula egaliksensis
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Species Information

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General:
Fibrous-rooted, scapose, perennial herbs.
Stems:
Scapes glabrous to sparsely glandular-hairy, not whitish-mealy, 4-25 cm tall.
Leaves:
Leaves not succulent, ovate or oblong to oblanceolate or spade-shaped, apices rounded, bases tapering abruptly to slender unwinged petiole, entire to wavy-margined (sometimes slightly toothed), glabrous, 0.5-5 cm.
Flowers:
Inflorescences of 1-3 (6) flowers; involucral bracts lanceolate, sac-shaped at the base, lacking ear-shaped appendages at the base, 2-6 mm. Flowers homostylous; corollas white to lavender with a yellow throat, lobes shallowly cleft, 6-10 mm wide; calyces green, often with purple stripes, lobes equal to or shorter than the tube, lobes equal to or shorter than the tube, finely glandular-hairy along the margins, sometimes whitish-mealy within, 4-7 mm; pedicels flexuous, 2-9 mm. Flowering Jul-Aug.
Fruits:
Capsules narrowly cylindrical, 1.5-2 times the calyx length; seeds without flanged edges.

Source: The Vascular Flora of British Columbia, draft 2014.
Author: Jamie Fenneman

Habitat / Range

Wet meadows, streambanks, shorelines, and marshes (often in areas of calcareous substrates) in the montane, subalpine, and alpine zones. Infrequent in n BC (north of 58°N), rare in se BC (Rocky Mts.); AK east to NF, south to BC, AB, disjunct in CO, WY; Greenland; e Asia.

Source: The Vascular Flora of British Columbia, draft 2014.
Author: Jamie Fenneman

Additional Notes

Although the presence of distinctly petiolate leaves is an important feature in distinguishing this species from the similar P. mistassinica, many individuals show only a few such leaves alongside leaves with broadly winged petioles that are otherwise similar to those of P. mistassinica; caution is thus advised when applying this criterion.

The very similar Primula nutans Georgi (SIBERIAN PRIMROSE) [= P. sibirica Jacq.], could potentially occur in extreme northwestern B.C., is best distinguished from P. egaliksensis by the ear-shaped appendages at the base of its oblong involucral bracts, heterostylous flowers, and wider corollas (9-20 mm wide). Primula egaliksensis, in contrast, in contrast, has narrower, lanceolate involucral bracts that are sac-shaped at the base but lack the prominent ear-shaped lobes. Morphologic and genetic studies have suggested that P. egaliksensis through hybridization between P. nutans and P. mistassinica.

Source: The Vascular Flora of British Columbia, draft 2014
Author: Jamie Fenneman

Family Information

Primulaceae:

Annual, biennial, or perennial forbs; scapose; from fibrous roots, short rhizome, or branched caudex, occasionally mat-forming or cespitose. Scapes ascending to erect, solitary or several per plant, unbranched. Leaves all basal, often rosulate, simple, unlobed, entire to toothed, subsessile to stalked, glabrous to pubescent, sometime glandular. Inflorescence a terminal, bracteate umbel, or flowers solitary. Flowers radially symmetric, 5-merous, bisexual, stalked; corolla campanulate or tubular to salviform, lobes sometimes sharply reflexed, usually whitish or pinkish to deep magenta, 4- to 5-lobed; calyces 4- to 5-lobed; stamens 5; filaments distinct or partially connate; ovary superior; style 1. Fruits 5-chambered dehiscent capsules, valvate to circumcissile. Genera 20, species ca. 600 (4 genera, 15 spp. in B.C.). Widespread in arctic, temperate, and subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere; disjunct in equatorial regions (e.g., e Africa, Indonesia) and in the southern hemisphere (e.g., s South America).

Non-scapose genera that were formerly included in Primulaceae ( Anagallis, Glaux, Lysimachia, Trientalis) have now been moved to Myrsinaceae (Källersjö et al. 2000, Trift et al. 2002, Cholewa and Kelso 2009). Many species in this family have a pronounced association with calcareous environments and are subsequently rather locally distributed within the province. Primulaceae contains a number of very showy species, and several genera have become important ornamentals in the horticultural trade (e.g., Primula, Dodecatheon).

Key to the Genera of Primulaceae

1a. Corolla lobes >2 times as long as the tube, sharply reflexed; stamens far exserted; filaments often at least partially connate (distinct in some species) .........................................................................Dodecatheon

1b. Corolla lobes less than twice as long as the tube, not reflexed; stamens included; filaments never connate…………………….........................2

2a. Calyces keeled (at least on the tube); plants densely cespitose (cushion-like) or mat-forming perennials with clusters of leaves at the bases of the scapes (rarely taprooted biennials), corollas rose-pink (fading to lavender, rarely to whitish).…...............................................Douglasia

2b. Calyces not keeled or only weakly keeled in fruit; plants taprooted annuals or perennials from fibrous roots or short rhizomes, or if mat-forming perennials (i.e., Androsace chamaejasme), then corollas white or pink-tinged with a yellow or pink throat..……………………….……………………………………………………………………………………...................................3

3a. Corollas constricted at the throat, magenta to lavender (rarely white), usually >7 mm across; plants never densely grey-hairy… ………………………………………………………...…………………………………………………..................................................Primula

3b. Corollas not constricted at the throat, white (sometimes fading pinkish in A. chamaejasme), usually <5 mm across (if >5 mm, then plants densely grey-hairy)…….……….......................................................……Androsace


Source: The Vascular Flora of British Columbia, draft 2014.
Author: Jamie Fenneman

Genus Information

Fibrous-rooted, scapose, perennial herbs. Scapes ascending to erect, unbranched. Leaves all basal, in a single rosette, petioles absent or obscure. Inflorescence a terminal, usually bracteate umbel of 2-25 flowers (flowers sometimes solitary). Flowers pink to violet (rarely white), usually with yellow centre; corollas salverform, constricted at the throat, 5-lobed, the lobes shallowly to deeply cleft; calyces campanulate to cylindrical, usually unkeeled (sometimes weakly keeled in fruit), 5-lobed; stamens included; homostylous or distylous. Capsules globose to cylindrical, 5-valvate. About 500 spp. (4 spp. in B.C.); widespread throughout Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas, especially in arctic, alpine, and boreal environments.

Primula is a large genus that is most diverse in the Old World, with relatively few representatives in the Americas. Flowers of some species of Primula exhibit heterostyly (Kelso 2009c), in which two different morphs occur within the species that have different relative style lengths and other associated floral characters, and the existence of heterostyly within a species can sometime be an important taxonomic character. In heterostylous species, the thrum morph has a short style, stamens located high in the corolla tube, and larger pollen grains, while the pin morph has a long style, stamens located high in the corolla tube, and smaller pollen grains; these morphs are only able to pollinate or receive pollination from the opposite morph, and are incapable of either self-pollination or pollination by the same morph. Species in this genus are often very similar, and misidentifications of specimens (especially herbarium material) are common, particularly for arctic-alpine species. Vegetative plasticity in response to the time of year or local environmental conditions further complicates identification, with individuals or populations often variable in size, flower number, and degree of waxy or mealy coating on the scapes and leaves. Several Primula species (P. nutans Georgi [SIBERIAN PRIMROSE]; P. stricta Hornem. [ERECT PRIMROSE]) have been attributed to B.C. in the past based on such misidentified material; see Excluded Species for additional information. This is an important genus in horticulture and many species are grown commercially; horticultural species may occasionally escape cultivation in southwest BC (e.g., P. veris L. [ENGLISH COWSLIP]), but none have become established.


Source: The Vascular Flora of British Columbia, draft 2014.
Author: Jamie Fenneman

Ecology

Ecological Framework for Primula egaliksensis

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class

Minimum

Average

Maximum

Elevation (metres) 676 676 676
Slope Gradient (%) 0 0 0
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
0
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
8 8 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
Class
E
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
1
Modal BEC Zone Class
BWBS
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: BWBS(1)

Climate

The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Primula groenlandica (Warming) W.W. Sm. & G. Forrest
Primula nutans Georgi

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References