E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco
Douglas-fir
Pinaceae (Pine family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© David Blevins  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #468)

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Distribution of Pseudotsuga menziesii
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Introduction

This is a tall evergreen coniferous species of tree that is common in British Columbia.

Species Information

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General:
Tree up to 70 (occasionally to 90) m tall; rounded to flattened crown when older, young trees with pyramidal crown; bark very thick, rough, dark brown.
Leaves:
Needles (1.5) 2-3 (3.5) cm long, spreading around twig or turned upward, obtuse to abruptly sharp-pointed tip; color varies from yellow-green to dark-green in var. menziesii to blue-green in var. glauca, lower surface with two longitudinal bands of white stomata.
Cones:
Seed cones drooping, yellowish- to purplish-green when young, turning reddish-brown, soon deciduous; 6-10 cm long in var. menziesii, 4-7 cm in var. glauca; scales with 3-lobed tip, the centre one the longest; pollen cones yellow to reddish, 6-10 mm long.
Notes:
Two varieties are recognized in BC:

1. Cones mostly 6-10 cm long, the bracts straight and appressed toward the cone tip; leaves deep (yellowish) green; primarily coastal.................. var. menziesii (coast Douglas-fir)

1. Cones mostly 4-7 cm long, the bracts appressed to spreading or reflexed; leaves more bluish-green; primarily interior................. var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco (Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir)

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

USDA Species Characteristics

Blooming Period:
Mid Spring
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall
Source:  The USDA

Habitat / Range

Moist to dry slopes, river terraces and flats in the lowland and montane zones; common in S BC, infrequent northward to C BC; E to SW AB and S to CA and MX.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

Ecology

Ecological Framework for Pseudotsuga menziesii

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class

Minimum

Average

Maximum

Elevation (metres) 0 917 2400
Slope Gradient (%) 0 29 240
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
0 197 360
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
0 3 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
Class
C
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
11160
Modal BEC Zone Class
IDF
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: BG(175), CDF(220), CWH(1615), ESSF(458), ICH(2813), IDF(3022), MH(14), MS(1237), PP(375), SBPS(65), SBS(814)

Climate

The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw.

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

Related Databases

General References