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Summary: features include spherical to angular fruitbody with appressed-fibrillose surface that barring injury is white then yellow for a short time then vinaceous-red, but surface normally soon staining pink from injury, spore mass that is white to dingy ochraceous becoming olive to dark olive-brown and has small chambers, growth under Douglas-fir, and chemical and microscopic characters including smooth truncate spores from 4-spored and 6-spored basidia, and peridium that is dull vinaceous as revived in KOH; a molecular study of R. vinicolor, R. ochraceisporus, R. diabolicus, R. vesiculosus, and R. parvulus concluded the first three names were synonyms [falling under the name R. vinicolor], that R. parvulus was close if not identical, and that a closely related but distinct biological species designated R. vesiculosus sensu Kretzer et al included R. vesiculosus A.H. Sm. from Idaho, a paratype of R. diabolicus from Idaho, 3 paratype collections of R. vinicolor from Idaho, and a R. vinicolor collection from Oregon, (R. vesiculosus sensu Kretzer et al. differed from R. vesiculosus A.H. Sm. in having a wider range of spores lengths - (5)6-9(10) vs. 6-6.5 microns, and in being found under Douglas-fir rather than Lodgepole Pine, see SIMILAR for the differences between R. vinicolor sensu Kretzer et al. and R. vesiculosus sensu Kretzer et al.); R. vinicolor type found in ID (Smith(30)), reported to North American Truffling Society for BC and frequently for OR, reported by Luoma(1) and Fogel(8) for OR, very abundant in the Pacific Northwest, predominantly in spring, (Kretzer(1)), 2 paratypes of R. diabolicus A.H. Sm. from WA were subsumed under R. vinicolor sensu Kretzer et al., documenting the presence of R. vinicolor in Washington; found through much of the range of Douglas-fir in North America and introduced to Europe, Australia, and New Zealand on Douglas-fir seedlings on plantations, (Trappe, M.(1)), abundant in the Pacific Northwest, found from southwestern BC to northern CA, CO, (Trappe(13) who maintain separately Rhizopogon ochraceisporus A.H. Sm. as common in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, under Pseudotsuga, and Rhizopogon diabolicus A.H. Sm. as rare in central Idaho under Pinaceae)
Outer Surface: 1-3cm across, "white then vinaceous-red"; dry, appressed fibrillose, (Smith(4)), 1-3cm across, spherical to nearly spherical, ovoid, or angular from external pressures; "white at first and soon staining pink, finally becoming vinaceous-red over all, if ba
Chemical Reactions: KOH on surface gives purplish stain fading to vinaceous; FeSO4 on surface slightly olive-brown or no reaction, (Smith(30))
Interior: becoming dark olive-brown, (Smith(4)), chambers small and nearly filled with spores; white to dingy ochraceous becoming olive to dark olive-brown, (Smith(30)), light yellow when young, "by maturity dark cinnamon brown to dark olive and rubbery", (Trappe,
Microscopic: spores (5.5)6-7(8) x 3-4(4.5) microns, 2 basal projections [truncate], subhymenium cellular; "peridium with a thin layer of interwoven fibrils", "interior hyphae reddish in KOH, in the epicutis the hyphal walls cinnamon-buff in KOH", (Smith(4)), spores (5.5)6.5-8.5(9) x 3-4(4.5) microns in English description, (5.5)6-7(8) x 3-4(4.5) microns in Latin description, elliptic to oval with truncate base, under oil immersion a slight tooth projects on each side of the scar to produce an incipient cup-like base, smooth, yellowish in Melzer's reagent and KOH, wall somewhat thickened; basidia 4-spored and 6-spored, 5-8 microns wide, clavate, readily collapsing; paraphyses 15-30 x 6-12 microns, clavate to elliptic or subcylindric, becoming thick-walled when old, lacking distinctive content; tramal plates when mature of hyphae 3-6 microns wide, colorless, interwoven, refractive-gelatinous; subhymenium cellular; peridium of appressed-interwoven hyphae 3-8(12) microns wide, the cells mostly equal in width but some enlarged, no pockets of sphaerocysts present, as revived in KOH the whole layer dull vinaceous, "pigment in masses between the hyphae (obscuring almost all detail in the layer)"; clamp connections absent; all tissues inamyloid, (Smith(30))
Habitat / Range
under conifers, especially Pseudotsuga (Douglas-fir), (Smith(4)), in groups or single in duff under Pseudotsuga, July and August, (Smith(30)), mycorrhizal host in the Pacific Northwest Pseudotsuga, (Trappe(13)), fruiting year-round (Trappe, M.(3))
Rhizopogon vesiculosus sensu Kretzer et al differs from R. vinicolor sensu Kretzer most usefully in the colors of the fresh peridium (surface) and gleba (spore mass): 'Both species begin with a white peridium that bruises pinkish-red (Smith's "vinaceous"), but only R. vinicolor sensu Kretzer et al develops vivid yellow patches during early maturity. At maturity, both species are light yellowish brown (Smith's "ochraceous") and turn various shades of brown from handling, the shades typically reflecting the color of the mature gleba underneath (see below). In R. vinicolor sensu Kretzer et al, the gleba develops from white when immature through pale yellow and pale greenish yellow-brown, to dark greenish brown (Smith's "olive brown") or brown or more rarely reddish brown (Smith's "rusty cinnamon" or "russet"). On the other hand, the gleba of R. vesiculosus sensu Kretzer et al appears to develop from white to greenish brown (a stage that apparently is short and was not noted in the type description) to dark blackish-brown (dominant stage).', (Kretzer(1), Latin names italicized); Rhizopogon olivaceofuscus differs in FeSO4 reaction and change of color of spore mass when cut; Rhizopogon parvulus has different spores (Smith(30)); in the dried state, Rhizopogon diabolicus has bright rusty cinnamon spores mass and the peridium is less red, (Smith(30)); other species associated with Douglas-fir that have woven brown hyphae in the peridium revived in KOH include R. parksii (spores 4.5-6.5 x 2.3-3 microns), Rhizopogon hawkerae (spores 6.5-8 x 2.2-2.8 microns), Rhizopogon villescens (spores 7-10 x 3-4 microns), Rhizopogon villosulus (spores 6-8 x 2.2.5 microns), Rhizopogon zelleri (spores 9-12 x 3.5-4 microns), (these five with at least some flagellate hyphae), Rhizopogon subareolatus (spores 6-7 x 2-2.3 microns), and Rhizopogon subclavatisporus (spores 8-13 x 4.5-7 microns and thicker on one end), (NATS); Rhizopogon rubescens is associated with pines, and peridium has clear woven hyphae when revived in KOH, (NATS); Rhizopogon ellenae has spores 6-9 x 2.5-4 microns, and peridium when revived is thin (about 100 microns thick), shiny, and composed of woven hyphae but often with embedded debris, (NATS); Rhizopogon occidentalis, Rhizopogon ochraceorubens, Rhizopogon vulgaris, and Rhizopogon evadens may all become or bruise a shade of reddish but spores are narrower, (NATS); Rhizopogon gilkeyae A.H. Sm. and Rhizopogon subalpinus A.H. Sm. may be this species
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2020-11-26 5:02:39 AM
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