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Summary: characterized by yellow cap, a tendency to stain gray with age or injury, and a preference for birch habitat; included in Pacific Northwest key (Woo(1)), Bills & Miller examined collections from QC, AK, NJ, PA, TN, VA, WV, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom (Scotland), Cripps reported from MT, Arora from NM, collection from BC deposited at Pacific Forestry Centre by Paul Kroeger, CHEMICAL REACTIONS stem flesh reactions: FeSO4 no reaction to pale grayish pink or pale pink, SV no reaction to dull violet, NH4OH no reactions, (Bills)
Cap: 6-10cm across, fleshy, rounded; chrome yellow to pale lemon yellow; viscid drying shining, margin even becoming slightly grooved when old, peeling 1/2-2/3, (Woo), 3-10cm across, nearly spherical, cushion-shaped or convex, with margin inrolled when young, soon broadly convex to flat, finally flat-depressed; bright yellow to orange yellow, occasionally with rose tints, usually becoming gray to grayish black from margin inward when old; moist to viscid when wet, shiny, bald, sometimes radially streaked, often minutely rugulose [wrinkled], margin striate to tuberculate-striate, striations 0.1-1cm long, cuticle easily separable 1/2 to 3/4 of the way to the disc, (Bills), 6-8cm across, convex-flat; bright chrome-cadmium yellow (or paler more lemon-yellow); margin slightly striate-sulcate when old, (Lange), (3)4-12cm across, nearly round becoming convex to flat or slightly depressed; yellow to golden yellow; slightly viscid, soon dry, smooth, margin slightly striate when old, (Arora)
Flesh: firm; white, becoming gray to black on bruising or when old, (Woo), firm when young, brittle when old, 0.2-0.6cm at midradius, very thin at margin; white, "cream-color" to pale gray, slowly discoloring gray when cut, in stem "sometimes slowly staining pale pinkish orange, but soon pale to dark gray where injured", (Bills), white, rather quickly becoming gray or even blackish when old, (Lange), white, slowly staining grayish when rubbed, (Arora), turns reddish then blackish when bruised or cut (Ammirati)
Gills: white, then yellow, eventually gray, (Woo), adnate or slightly notched, close to medium, with rare subgills, up to 0.9cm broad at midradius, rounded to subacute near margin, interveined, near stem often forked; white when young, soon pale yellow, often gray to dark gray when old, especially toward cap margin and gill edge; edge even, sometimes eroded when old, (Bills), almost white becoming pale custard-yellow, (Lange), "adnate to adnexed or free, close"; creamy becoming pale ocher, sometimes grayish-stained when old, (Arora)
Stem: white then graying, (Woo), 2.5-7.5cm x 1-2.5cm at midpoint, equal or slightly flared at either top or base, spongy when young, remaining spongy or becoming hollow when old; white to pale gray, becoming dark gray or "cinereous" when old or when wounded; dry to moist, longitudinally rugulose or rivulose, (Bills), equal, white, often with a flush of yellowish, (Lange), 3-8cm x 1-2cm, more or less equal; white to pale yellow, aging or slowly bruising grayish; dry, smooth, (Arora), 4-10cm x 1-2cm, "soft but not fragile; white, turning gray with age or bruising (very slowly)", (Phillips)
Odor: none, (Woo), not distinctive (Bills), mild, (Arora), pleasant (Phillips)
Taste: mild or slightly peppery when young, (Woo), not distinctive (Bills), mild (Lange, Arora), mild to slightly peppery (Phillips)
Microscopic spores: spores 8 x 6-6.5 microns, ornamentation Patterson-Woo type A-3, B-3, (Woo), spores 7.5-10 x 6-7.5 microns, obovate to broadly obovate, ornamentation amyloid, up to 1.2 microns high, consisting of isolated, conical to cylindric verrucae (warts) and many particles, sometimes aligned to form short chains, sometimes connected by a few faint lines, rarely forming a partial reticulum, suprahilar area depressed, ornamented with a large irregular amyloid patch, suprahilar appendix inamyloid, conspicuous; basidia 4-spored, 35-53 x 9-12.5 microns, clavate to broadly clavate; hymenial cystidia projecting 5-36 microns beyond basidia, arising from hymenium or subhymenium, 45-83 x 8-13 microns, clavate to cylindric with acuminate or mucronate apices, with refractive contents, (Bills), spores 8 x 6-6.5 microns, warts rather coarse, mostly isolated, (Lange), spores 8-9 x 6.5-7.5 microns, elliptic, warts 0.4-0.6 microns high, some catenulate, a few fine lines, (Hesler), spores 8.5-10 x 7.5-8 microns, broadly elliptic, amyloid warts and ridges, (Arora), (7.5)9-10 x (6)7.5-8 microns, warts up to 1 micron high, joined by numerous fine lines to form a fairly well-developed network, (Phillips)
Spore deposit: yellow, Crawshay E-F, (Woo), yellowish orange, IIIa-b, (Bills), very pale creamy ocher (Lange), yellow-ocher (Arora), pale ocher, Crawshay F, (Phillips)
Habitat / Range
under birch, (Woo), single to gregarious on soil, humus or moss, in forests, July to October, (Bills), under Betula (birch), especially on somewhat boggy or heathy ground, (Lange), scattered or in small groups in woods, mainly northern or montane in distribution and partial to birch, aspen and various conifers, summer and fall, (Arora), in wet swampy places in mixed woods (Phillips), sphagnum and Betula, also damp broadleaf woods, (Courtecuisse), spring, summer, fall, (Buczacki for Britain/Ireland)
Russula lutea has yellow to orange-yellow cap, ocher gills, white stem, and odor of apricots, (Miller), Russula lutea does not stain gray, is rather fragile, and has ocher gills, (Arora) spore deposit of Russula lutea is Crawshay G-H, (Woo); Russula aurantiolutea Kauffman, known from CA, has dull yellow to honey-yellow viscid to subviscid cap often mixed with orange colors, flesh that does not change to gray when exposed, white stem with yellowish tints or flushes, and taste slowly but distinctly peppery, (Thiers gives full description)
Bills(1) (colors individually in quotation marks from Ridgway(1)), Hesler Type Studies III 1961, Lange(1), Arora(1), Phillips(1)*, Lincoff(2)*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen(1)* (but had whitish spore print), Kibby(1)*, Courtecuisse(1)*, Barron(1)*, Ammirati(1), W References for the fungi
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2019. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
18/11/2019 5:18:42 AM
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