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Summary: distinguishing features are medium-sized to large size, strong to moderate red or reddish orange to deep pink cap, strongly peppery taste, growth usually on Sphagnum, large spores, and commonly multiseptate dermatopseudocystidia on cap and stem, (Shaffer); Thiers lists for California the similar species, Russula silvicola Shaffer (listed also by Jumpponen for Washington and C. Roberts for BC), but does not list R. emetica: "Until recently R. silvicola was frequently misidentified as R. emetica."; R. emetica not common in Pacific Northwest, included in Pacific Northwest key of Woo(1) ("tends to be rare in our area"), presence in Pacific Northwest implied by inclusion in Ammirati(1); reported from British Columbia (Bandoni(1), Davidson(1)) and several collections at the University of Victoria including one by Paul Kroeger as recently as 2000; Grund reported one collection from WA, Shaffer examined collections from MI, MN, also found in Europe, CHEMICAL REACTIONS on cap flesh 10% FeSO4 light grayish yellowish pink, on stem surface 10% FeSO4 grayish yellowish pink, (Shaffer), negative reaction to FeSO4 on cap flesh, cystidia positive in SV, (Grund)
Cap: 6-9cm across, "scarlet pink, light blood red, sometimes paling to white"; "viscid, shining when dry, margin grooved, easily peeling", (Woo), 2.5-8.5cm across, when young cushion-shaped with incurved margin, becoming convex to flat-convex with a depressed disc and eventually irregularly concave or somewhat funnel-shaped, somewhat umbonate or not; "strong, vivid, or moderate red, strong to deep reddish orange, or less commonly deep pink, occasionally spotted deep red centrally", sometimes partly colored also with moderate to pale orange yellow to moderate orange; viscid, bald, rugulose [wrinkled] outward from disc or not, sometimes minutely areolate [cracked like dried mud] when old, not striate when young but becoming tuberculate-striate 0.2-0.7cm from edge inward, cap skin thin, easily separable 1/2-2/3 of radius, (Shaffer)
Flesh: white, pink under cap skin, (Woo), moderately thick ( 0.4-0.9cm thick at disc), soft-brittle; sometimes tinged red just beneath cap skin, otherwise white, (Shaffer)
Gills: creamy (Woo), adnexed to adnate or sometimes sinuate, close, unequal, the subgills rare and of various lengths, gills moderately broad, 0.3-0.8cm broad, rounded near cap margin, occasionally forked near stem, fragile, interveined; yellowish white, unchanging when injured; edges entire, (Shaffer), "broad; pure white to pale cream", (Phillips), adnate to adnexed or free (Arora for emetica group)
Stem: white tending to yellow, (Woo), 4.5-10.5cm x 0.7-2.4cm, flared at top, elsewhere widening to base, or rarely narrowing at very base, stuffed at first, becoming partly hollow; "white to yellowish white, sometimes discolored grayish yellow basally, but not changing when injured"; dry, dull, longitudinally rugulose [wrinkled], (Shaffer), equal or wider below, (Arora for R. emetica group)
Odor: slightly fruity (Woo), with a Lycoperdon like odor (Shaffer), fruity (Phillips), mild (Arora for emetica group)
Taste: very peppery (Woo, Shaffer, Phillips)
Microscopic spores: spores 9-10 x 7-8 microns, ornamentation Patterson-Woo type C-2, E-2, (Woo), spores 8.0-11.3 x 6.7-9.0 microns, elliptic to obovate, often broadly so, ornamentation "of cylindric to conic, occasionally partially nonamyloid warts and spines up to 0.7-1.7 microns high, sometimes a few ridges or lines of catenulate warts, and usually numerous connectives", usually forming a partial or complete reticulum; basidia 4-spored, 34-40 x 9.0-13.6 microns, clavate; hymenial pseudocystidia abundant, 37-80 x 7.2-15.3 microns, "subcylindric to clavate, fusoid-clavate, or subfusiform", "often mucronate, capitate, or short-appendiculate, otherwise rounded to acute or sometimes extruded-inflated apically", SV+, arising at various levels in subhymenium or outer trama, projecting up to 34 microns beyond basidioles on gill faces, sometimes farther on gill edges, cheiloleptocystidia when present, 11-22 x 2.0-7.5 microns, subcylindric to clavate, rarely branched, colorless, common; cap epicutis 80-160 microns thick (subcutis 60-200 microns thick), with a gelatinous matrix, a trichoderm of non-gelatinous to slightly gelatinous, usually branched connective hyphal ends 0.7-3.4 microns wide, and numerous pseudocystidia that are 25-220 x 4.0-9.0 microns, "subcylindric to clavate, rarely branched, usually 1-10-septate, and SV+ and which originate in the epicutis or subcutis"; septa of pseudocystidia on cap and stem are more easily seen in sections mounted in SV and may be overlooked in KOH or water, (Shaffer, using Greek mu for "microns")
Spore deposit: white, Crawshay A, (Woo), yellowish white to almost white, never as dark as Romagnesi 1b, (Shaffer), white, Crawshay A, (Phillips)
Habitat / Range
mossy, swampy woods (Woo), single, scattered, gregarious, or rarely cespitose [in tufts], usually on Sphagnum, rarely on very rotten wood or humus, often in boggy areas of coniferous or hardwood-coniferous woods, (Shaffer), in swampy conifer woods, July to October, (Phillips), summer, fall, (Bacon)
R. silvicola Shaffer has smaller fruiting body, has somewhat different pigmentation, often develops pallid to yellow areas on cap when old, is not restricted to Sphagnum habitats, (Thiers), Russula silvicola has smaller fruiting body or at least shorter stem, with less deep red and less uniformly red stem, and although spore sizes overlap, has generally smaller spores with lower ornamentation, the commonly multiseptate pseudocystidia on cap and stem surfaces of R. emetica are a more distinctive microscopic difference, (Shaffer); Russula bicolor grows in soil or rotten wood, has a red cap with yellow or yellow centrally with an orange-pink to copper red margin, spores with mostly isolated warts under 1 micron high, and pileocystidia that are infrequent and inconspicuous, whereas R. emetica grows in sphagnum, has red cap occasionally with orange patches, reticulate spores with warts up to 1.7 microns high, and frequent multiseptate pileocystidia, (Roberts, C.(2)), R. sanguinaria has red to rosy stem and deep yellow spore deposit, (Woo as R. rosacea)
Shaffer(6), Woo(1), Phillips(1)*, Lincoff(2)*, Lincoff(1)*, Ammirati(1)*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen(1)*, Courtecuisse(1)*, Arora(1), Barron(1)*, Miller(14)*, Bandoni(1), Davidson(1), Thiers(3) (not listing species for California), Jumpponen(1) (discussing R. s References for the fungi
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2019. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
18/11/2019 6:26:38 AM
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