E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Spartina anglica C.E. Hubbard
English cordgrass
Poaceae (Grass family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Gary Williams  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #16111)

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Distribution of Spartina anglica
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Introduction

This is a highly invasive aquatic species of estuaries and wetlands that arose in England from a fertile hybrid of the European small cordgrass (Spartina maritima) and the (probably) accidentally introduced American smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) (Nehring and Hesse 2008). This is a deep rooting perennial species that spreads by rhizomes to form extensive meadows and swards. It was widely used for for coastal protection (stabilization and land reclamation) along ocean shorelines in various countries, including Africa (Global Invasive Species Database 2010) but colonized large areas of tidal mudflats and saltmarsh, altering these ecosystems and affecting native populations of flora and fauna. It spreads through seed dispersal on ocean currents, by birds, and by accidental spread through ship ballast water.

Spartina anglica is now found in North America in British Columbia, Washington and California (USDA 2010). It was introduced in Puget Sound, Washington, in 1961 (Williams 2004), and was discovered in British Columbia in 2003 by Gary Williams on Robert's Bank in the Fraser River estuary. "Spartina anglica is [now] the dominant Spartina species in Boundary Bay." (Lomer pers. comm. 2013).

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

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Species References

Global Invasive Species Database. 2010. Spartina anglica Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Available Online.

Nehring, Stefan and Jurgen Hesse. 2008. Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea. Biological Invasions 10 (6): 937-950.

USDA. 2010. Plant profile for Spartina anglica. United States Department of Agriculture. Available Online.

Williams, Gary. 2004. Discovery of a new salt marsh invasive to British Columbia, English Cordgrass (Spartina anglica C. E. Hubb.) and management initiatives in 2003. Botanical Electronic News #324.

General References