General: Low shrub, 20-60 (90) cm tall, from long creeping rhizome; stems erect, smooth, with thin wiry branches.
Leaves: Alternate, deciduous, short-stalked, oval to oblong-egg-shaped, 2-7 cm long, coarsely double-toothed mostly above the middle, dark green above, paler below, smooth.
Flowers: Inflorescence a branched, nearly flat-topped, terminal cluster of numerous small flowers; corollas white, sometimes pink-tinged, the petals 5, circular, about 2 mm long; calyces smooth on the outside, 5-lobed, the lobes triangular, erect to spreading, about 1 mm long; ovaries superior; stamens numerous.
Fruits: Follicles, usually 5, about 3 mm long, beaked, somewhat leathery, smooth except sometimes a few long hairs along the suture, shining; seeds several, spindle-shaped.
Dry to moist open forests, rocky slopes and clearings in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; common throughout BC east (mostly) of the Coast-Cascade Mountains and S of 56degreeN; S to CA, MT and ID.
A shade-tolerant/intolerant, sub montane to subalpine, Asian and Cordilleran North American (marginally Central) deciduous shrub. Occurs in continental boreal and cool temperate climates on very dry to moderately dry, nitrogen-medium soils; its occurrence in~reases with increasing continentality and jecreases with increasing latitude and pre~ipitation. Common, often plentiful. in semiJpen forests (persists on cutover areas) on lJater-shedding sites in the eastern part of the ~oast-interior ecotone. Usually associated with \cer glabrum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Aster ~onspicuus, Calamagrostis rubescens, Mahonia lquifolium, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, and ;hepherdia canadensis. Characteristic of ontinental forests.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2019. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
12/11/2019 8:11:25 AM
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