General: Perennial herb from creeping rhizome; stems erect, 20-80 cm tall, simple or sparingly branched, 4-angled, long-stiff-hairy on the angles, shorter-hairy and frequently glandular-hairy elsewhere.
Leaves: Opposite, egg-shaped or oblong to elliptic, 3.5-9 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, tips rounded to pointed, broadly rounded to slightly notched at the base, blunt-toothed, soft-hairy, sometimes glandular; unstalked or stalks less than 1 cm long; lowermost leaves small and deciduous.
Flowers: Inflorescence a series of clusters of several to many flowers, the lower subtended by slightly reduced leaves, the upper by bracts; corollas tubular, rose-purple, mottled with lighter and darker spots, 11-16 mm long, the tube only slightly (or not) surpassing the calyx, abruptly expanded on the lower side at about the base of the internal ring of hairs, often with a small sac-shaped swelling, the upper lip erect, entire, 3-4 mm long, the lower lip 3-lobed, 5-7 mm long; calyces funnel-shaped, (6) 7-9 mm long, soft- to stiff-hairy, often glandular, the teeth 5, awl-shaped.
Fruits: Nutlets, 4 clustered together, about 2 mm long, brown.
2. Plants densely covered with soft, white hairs...........................S. byzantina
2. Plants not white-hairy.
3. Leaves unstalked, at least those of upper half of stem.............. S. palustris
3. Leaves all stalked.
4. Plants 70-150 cm tall; corollas deep red-purple; tubes 15-23 mm long.......................S. chamissonis
4. Plants 30-80 cm tall; corollas pale pink to pink-purple, tubes 8-13 mm long....................S. mexicana
Source: Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
Habitat / Range
Wet stream and lake margins, meadows and roadside ditches in the steppe zone; infrequent in S BC east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains; circumpolar, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to NY, OH and AZ; Eurasia.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2017. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
22/07/2019 2:33:37 AM
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