General: Tree, seldom to 40 m tall, much shorter near tree-line; narrow crown, with slightly drooping leader (growing tip), less evident with age; twigs strongly hairy with mix of short and long hairs; bark thick, strongly furrowed and ridged, dark purplish- to reddish-brown.
Leaves: Needles thickened in centre and somewhat 4-sided, round to blunt at tip, (10) 12-20 mm long, spread around branches to somewhat upturned, not forming flat sprays; yellow-green to deep blue-green, stomata on both surfaces, rarely whitish.
Cones: Seed cones maturing from green or purple to dark brown, (2.5) 3-6 (7) cm long, cylindric with narrowed ends; pollen cones bluish, 3-4 mm long.
Notes: See above for hybridization with T. heterophylla.
1. Needles flattened in cross section, grooved and greenish on upper surface, with two white (stomatiferous) bands below, tending to form flat spray-like branches; cones egg-shaped, 1.5-2.5 cm long......................Tsuga heterophylla
1. Needles nearly semi-circular in cross section (flat on top), bluish-green on both surfaces, not forming flat spray-like branches, but spreading in all directions; cones cylindric, narrowed at each end, 3.7 cm long........................Tsuga mertensiana
Source: the Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
Habitat / Range
Wet to dry slopes in the lowland to subalpine zones; common at high elevations along W BC and infrequent in SE BC and lower elevations of NW BC coast; N to SE AK and S to C CA, N ID and W MT.
A shade-tolerant/intolerant, sub montane to subalpine, circumpolar forb (transcontinental in North America). Occurs on fresh to very moist, nitrogen-rich soils (Moder and Mull humus forms) within boreal, temperate, cool semiarid, and mesothermal climates; its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation. Frequent in herbaceous communities, occasional in broad-leaved forests on disturbed, water-shedding and water-receiving sites. A nitrophytic species characteristic of continuously disturbed sites.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2021-01-19 8:13:23 PM
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