Viola renifolia A. Gray
kidney-leaved violet (white violet)
Violaceae (Violet family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants


© Jamie Fenneman     (Photo ID #24668)


E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Viola renifolia
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend

Species Information

Perennial herb from a short root stalk, without stolons, plants up to 15 cm tall; stems lacking.
Basal leaves heart- to kidney-shaped, the blades 1.5-3.5 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, toothed, smooth or hairy, especially beneath, the stalks 3-15 cm long, hairy; stem leaves lacking; stipules lanceolate, 3-10 mm long, toothed.
Inflorescence of single, axillary flowers; petals 5, white, the lower petal 10-15 mm long including the 1- to 1.5-mm long spur, the lower 3 purplish-pencilled, beardless; sepals 5, lanceolate; style heads smooth, slightly bilobed.
Capsules, nearly globular, smooth, usually purple; seeds brown.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.


Ecological Framework for Viola renifolia

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres)
1014 13 2340
Slope Gradient (%)
15 0 205

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

139 0 360
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
4 0 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

BAFA(1), BWBS(201), CWH(1), ESSF(108), ICH(48), IDF(27), MH(1), MS(35), PP(3), SBPS(21), SBS(180), SWB(23)

Habitat and Range

Mesic to moist woodlands, open forests, streambanks, swamps and meadows in the montane and subalpine zones; infrequent throughout BC east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains, rare on C Vancouver Island; N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to ME, NH, PA, MI, MN, SD, CO and ID.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Synonyms and Alternate Names:
Viola renifolia var. brainerdii (Greene) Fernald
Viola renifolia var. renifolia