General: Perennial herb from a scaly, fleshy rhizome, without stolons; ascending to erect, smooth, 5-30 cm tall.
Leaves: Basal leaves heart-shaped to kidney-shaped, toothed, smooth, the blades 5-9 cm long, 4-8 cm wide, the stalks 2.5-25 cm long, smooth; stem leaves similar, the stalks from shorter than to slightly longer than the blades; stipules egg-shaped, 0.5-1 cm long, entire.
Flowers: Inflorescence of single, axillary flowers; petals 5, deep yellow, the lower petal 8-14 mm long including the 1- to 2-mm long spur, the lower 3 purplish-pencilled within, the lateral pair bearded; sepals 5, lanceolate; style heads densely bearded.
Fruits: Capsules, smooth, 7-17 mm long; seeds brown to black.
Notes: Hybridizes with V. biflora ssp. carlottae on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
A shade-tolerant to very shade-intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Western North American herb distributed equally in the Pacific and Cordilleran regions. Occurs on very moist to wet, nitrogen-rich soils (Moder and Mull humus forms) within boreal, temperate, and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence increases with increasing latitude and precipitation. Common in non-forested communities and open-canopy forests on water-receiving (flood-plains and stream-edge) sites. Usually associated with Athyrium filix-femina, Cornus sericea, Lysichitum americanum, Rubus spectabilis, and Tiarella trifoliata. A nitrophytic species characteristic of flooded sites.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2019. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
15/12/2019 1:02:29 PM
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