E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Xylaria hypoxylon (L.) Grev.
candlesnuff fungus

Species account author: Ian Gibson.
Extracted from Matchmaker: Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest.

Introduction to the Macrofungi
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E-Flora BC Static Map
Distribution of Xylaria hypoxylon
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Species Information

Xylaria hypoxylon has a black tough strap-like or antler-like fruitbody dusted with white powder in upper part, growing on wood. It is common and widely distributed. The white powder represents asexual spores. There are collections from BC deposited at the Pacific Forestry Centre and the University of British Columbia. The University of Washington has collections from WA, OR, ID, and AK.
Fruiting body:
2-8cm high, very tough, erect, slender, cylindrical or narrowly clubshaped when young but usually becoming antlerlike (branched sparsely or forked at tip) in age, upper part or tip (or occasionally overall) white and powdery, eventually becoming black an
very tough, white, pallid, (Arora)
black, hairy, (Dennis), flat and ribbon-like to oval in cross-section, rarely round, black toward base and somewhat hairy (Breitenbach)
spores 10-14 x 4-6 microns, bean-shaped, smooth, brown under microscope; asexual spores (conidia) elliptic or elongate, smooth, colorless under microscope; perithecia embedded in upper part of mature fruiting body, (Arora), spores 11-14 x 5-6 microns, slightly bean-shaped, black, uniseriate; asci 8-spored, about 100 x 8 microns, cylindric, (Dennis), 12-15 x 6 microns, bean-shaped, smooth, black, with 1-2 drops and a longitudinal germination cleft; asci 8-spored, 100-150 x 8 microns, amyloid, with apical ring; paraphyses cylindric-filiform, (Breitenbach)
Spore Deposit:
blackish (Phillips)

Habitat / Range

scattered to densely gregarious or clustered on rotting logs, stumps, buried sticks, etc., (Arora), spring and fall, or at other times, (Lincoff(1)), single to cespitose, on hardwood or more rarely conifer wood, conidial stage throughout the year, ascus stage late winter or early spring, (Breitenbach)

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Range and Status Information Links


no (Phillips)

Additional Photo Sources

Related Databases

Species References

Dennis(1), Arora(1)*, Breitenbach(1)*, Trudell(4)*, Phillips(1)*, Lincoff(2)*, Lincoff(1)*, Courtecuisse(1)*, Bacon(1)*, Buczacki(1)*

References for the fungi

General References