Neritic species (Ref. 11230). A coastal and schooling species (Ref. 188). Landlocked populations exist. Mature adults migrate inshore, entering estuaries to breed. During the summer of their first year, young form schools in shallow bays, inlets and channels that appear at the surface; these schools disappear in the fall and remain in deep water for the next 2-3 years (Ref. 6885, 27547). Young feed mainly on crustaceans, but also take decapod and mollusk larvae; adults prey mainly on large crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 6885, 27547). Because it does not undertake extensive coastal migrations, the mixing of local populations is relatively rare (Ref. 27547).
. Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 . (Ref. 188)