Primarily a lake dweller (Ref. 27547). Also found in large rivers and enters brackish water (Ref. 5723). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Appears to be rather sedentary, at least in the Great Lakes (Ref. 27547). Movement in large lakes generally consists of 4 stages: movement from deep to shallow water in the spring; movement back to deep water in the summer as the shoal water warms; migration to shallow-water spawning areas in the fall and early winter; and post-spawning movement back to deeper water (Ref. 27547). Forms separate populations in large lakes (Ref. 27547). Adults feed mainly on aquatic insect larvae, mollusks and amphipods (Ref. 1091, 3849), but also other fishes and fish eggs, including their own (Ref. 1998). Extensive hatchery programs for the propagation have been carried out on the Great Lakes and other areas for years (Ref. 3746, 3849)
. Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman 1973 Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966.