E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Wildlife of British Columbia

Enteroctopus dofleini (Wülker, 1910)
North Pacific Giant Octopus; Pacific Giant Octopus
Family: Octopodidae
Species account author: James Cosgrove.

© James Cosgrove  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #12781)

E-Fauna BC Static Map
Distribution of Enteroctopus dofleini in British Columbia
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Species Information

The giant Pacific octopus is the largest species of octopus in the world. Maximum radial width is documented at 9.8 m (32 ft) and weigh as much as 136 kg (300 lb). (Guinness World Records, 2008)

Biology


General

The giant Pacific octopus (GPO) is an octopod having 8 arms (or legs) but it does not have tentacles. Like other cephalopods, this species is a total carnivore and is known to be cannibalistic. The paralarvae (hatchlings) spend about 10 months in the plankton layer. As they are too heavy to float or remain neutral in the water they must support themselves by turning upside down and clinging to the underside of the surface tension. They drop off the surface to feed and then return to rest until they are too large for the surface tension to support. At that time they drop to the bottom and become benthic (bottom dwellers) for the rest of their lives. In general, a GPO will double its weight every 100 days. Female GPO's live to be about 4 years of age while males die a little sooner. Females seldom exceed 25 kg (55 lb) while males will reach 40 kg (88 lb) GPOs over 45 kg (100 lb) are very rare with all the largest animals having been reported in the 1800's and early 1900's.

Behaviour

The octopus is a solitary animal that lives in a den most of the time. They have a range of about 230 square meters (760 ft) but an overlap with other GPOs of up to 94% (Mather et. al., 1985). Locomotion is normally a crawl using the rear pairs of arms to push the octopus forward. The front pair of arms are usually raised with the suckers in contact with the water. Octopus suckers are chemotactic meaning they can taste what they touch including odors in the water.

Diet

As a paralarvae the octopus feeds on zooplankton such as copepods, euphausids and mysids. Once the octopus becomes benthic it will progress through a variety of sizes of food as it grows. Food will include small shrimp, small crabs and any fresh carrion it happens upon. As adults their food is most commonly crabs and clams or cockles.

Reproduction

Roughly the same number of males and female are hatched from a single nest. They grow at roughly the same rate depending on the amount of food they get and reach sexual maturity at about 30 months with a weight of approximatley 16 kg (35 lb). Mating normally occurs in the winter (Nov. & Dec.) with a secondary peak in April but mating can occur at any time of year. Once mated the female will select a den, wall off all the exits using available rocks in the area and crawl into the den, pulling the rest of the rocks to her to seal off the den from most predators. After this time the female will not feed again. She spends 28 - 42 days laying her nest of approximatley 68,000 eggs. Each single egg is woven into a string of about 175 eggs and then the string is glued to the roof of the dens. Once the egg laying is complete the female will spend her time grooming and cleaning the eggs and blowing clean water over them. The rate of development of the eggs is temperature dependent but normally is 7 to 10 months. If the female dies before the eggs hatch then the eggs will not hatch properly. If the female is alive, then vertually all the eggs will hatch and the paralarvae will swim to the surface (Cosgrove, 1993). Males continue to feed and increase in weight but will become senescent and die of old age at approximately 36 months. In colder waters, such as Alaska , the GPO may live longer and have longer brooding periods.

Predators:

While the paralarvae are in the plankton layer they are food for all of the planktonic predators and that will include everything from the baleen whales to jellyfish including many species of fish. When the paralarvae settle to the bottom then the range of predators switches to mostly fish. As the GPO gets larger so do the predators until, as an adult, the major predators are seals and sea lions or very large fish such as halibut and lingcod.

Habitat


The paralarvae are planktonic for about 10 months. Upon settling and becoming benthic they tend to live in rocky areas where they can find suitable dens. They will make use of human objects such as tin cans, old car tires, etc. if no other den is available (Cosgrove, unpublished data).

Distribution

Global Distribution

The giant Pacific octopus in found from central California and east through the north Pacific to Japan and Korea. It is found in waters from the intertidal to waters as deep as 2,000 m (6,600 ft) (Cosgrove and McDaniel, 2009).
Distribution in British Columbia

The giant Pacific octopus is found in all clean ocean waters of B.C. from intertidal waters to depths of 2,000 m (6,600 ft). Brackish waters or waters with low oxygen contents will not support the GPO.

Taxonomy


The giant Pacific octopus has been identified by 7 different names over the years (for a list see pg 21 in Super Suckers by Cosgrove and McDaniel, 2009). There is the suggestion (Pickford, 1964) that there are 3 subspecies of E. dofleini. This is unconfirmed by any DNA or enzymatic work and remains work to be done.

Comments


This octopus is a large, powerful and facinating animal to study. It is intelligent and a constant challenge to researchers and aquarists (Anderson, 2005, Mather and Anderson, 2000). It is one of the features of any large aquarium as people love to watch it.

Status Information

Origin StatusProvincial StatusBC List
(Red Blue List)
COSEWIC
UnlistedUnlistedUnlistedUnlisted
BC Ministry of Environment: BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer--the authoritative source for conservation information in British Columbia.

Additional Notes

Recommended Reading:

Cosgrove, James A. and Neil McDaniel. 2009. Super Suckers: The Giant Pacific Octopus and other Cephalopods of the Pacific Coast. Harbour Publishing, Madeira Park..

View a video of the Pacific Giant Octopus.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Octopus apollyon (Berry, 1913)
Octopus dofleini Wülker, 1910
Octopus dofleini subsp. apollyon (Berry, 1912)
Octopus dofleini subsp. dofleini (Wülker, 1910)
Octopus dofleini subsp. martini Pickford, 1964
Octopus gilbertianus Berry, 1912
Octopus hongkongensis Hoyle, 1885
Octopus madokai Berry, 1921
Octopus punctatus Gabb, 1862
Paroctopus asper Akimushkin, 1963
Polypus apollyon Berry, 1912
Polypus dofleini Wülker, 1910
Polypus gilbertianus Berry, 1912

Additional Range and Status Information Links

Additional Photo Sources

Species References

Anderson, R.C.. 2005. How smart are octopuses?. Coral 2, No 1: 44-48.

Cosgrove, J.A., 1993. In situ Observations of nesting Octopus dofleini. Journal of Cephalopod Biology, Volume 2(2): 30 - 31.

Cosgrove, J.A., 2011. Unpublished data.

Cosgrove, J.A. and N. McDaniel. 2009. Super Suckers: The Giant Pacific Octopus and other Cephalopods of the Pacific Coast. Harbour Publishing Company Ltd. 208 pages.

Guinness World Records 2008. London: Guinness Publishing, 2008.

Mather, J.A. and R.C. Anderson. 2000. Octopuses are smart suckers. The Cephalopod Page.

Mather, J.A., S. Resler and J.A. Cosgrove. 1985. Activity and Movement Patterns of Octopus dofleini. Journal of Marine Behavior and Physiology Vol. 11(1985): 301-314.

Pickford, G.E., 1964. Octopus dofleini (Wülker), the giant octopus of the North Pacific. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University 19: 1-70.

General References


Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2019. E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Fauna of British Columbia [efauna.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed: 22/11/2019 2:01:03 AM]
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