Inhabits brackish water of estuaries, lagoons, coastal shallows and bays, and fresh water in lowland and piedmont rivers. A schooling species that inhabits lakes or inshore coastal waters (Ref. 1998). Pelagic at the sea where it occurs at 4-8 m depth. In the spring, it leaves the sea or the lake and ascends freshwater streams to spawn. Some remain in fresh water throughout their lives; those that enter the sea stay within 8 to 10 km of the shore and probably do not stray far along the coast from the estuary. Spawns in rapids, in clear water, over stone-gravel bottom and at depth of 0.2-0.5 m. Possibly found up to 425 m depth. Young-of-the-year feed mostly on copepods and cladocerans, also rotifers, eggs and algae; adults feed on small crustaceans, fishes and shellfish, also squid, worms, and various insects. Feeding virtually ceases during spawning. Females grow faster, get bigger and live longer than males. Pelagic-neritic; anadromous; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 290 m. Polar.
. McAllister, D.E. 1990.