Abies grandis (Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.
grand fir
Pinaceae (Pine family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants


© Kevin Newell     (Photo ID #1159)


E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Abies grandis
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend


This is a tall evergreen, coniferous, tree species that is found from southern British Columbia (primarily southwestern BC) south to northern California.

Species Information

Tall, straight tree, up to 80 m tall; bark greyish to light brown, with resin blisters, smooth to shallowly ridged, becoming flaky; branches flattened and spray-like.
Needles flat, rounded and usually notched at the tip; dark green and shallowly grooved above, having two distinct whitish bands of stomata below; definitely spreading horizontally, 2-4 (5) cm long.
Seed cones erect, yellowish-green to green, 6-11 cm long, 3.5-4 cm thick, the bracts deciduous; pollen cones yellowish.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.

USDA Species Characteristics

Blooming Period:
Late Spring
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall
Source:  The USDA


Ecological Framework for Abies grandis

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres)
465 0 1675
Slope Gradient (%)
18 0 194

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

227 0 360
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
4 1 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

CDF(206), CWH(256), ESSF(1), ICH(184), IDF(50), MH(1)

Habitat and Range

Moist to mesic slopes and river terraces in the lowland and montane zones; frequent in SW BC, infrequent in SC BC; S to N CA, ID, W MT, SE WA and NE OR.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Synonyms and Alternate Names:
Abies excelsior
Abies grandis var. grandis
Abies grandis var. idahoensis Silba