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Summary: Important fieldmarks are dark brown to tan or dull yellowish cap with whitish warts, and free rim or collar at the top of the basal bulb. A. pantherina tends to fruit in spring, but also at other times of year. There may be several varieties or species that fall under this name (Lindgren). Amanita pantherina var. pantherinoides [here a synonym of Amanita pantherinoides] may be the correct name for a honey yellow Amanita that is sometimes placed in A. gemmata group, (Lindgren). According to Michael Beug, the true Amanita pantherina var. pantherina is not known to occur in North America and apart from var. pantherinoides, our species is unnamed. Tulloss(6) uses the provisional name Amanita ameripantherina and also recognizes Amanita pantherinoides. Amanita 'pantherina' is found widely and commonly in the Pacific Northwest, and is a common cause of reported poisoning. Distribution includes specifically BC (in Redhead(5)), WA (Jumpponen(1)), ID, MT (Cripps), and YT (Schalkwijk-Barendsen). There are numerous OR collections at Oregon State University. Tulloss(6) bases Amanita ameripantherina nom. prov. on collections from CA, ID, and NM, and says that additional possible reports come from British Columbia and Washington. Breitenbach(4) give distribution as North America, Europe, Asia, North Africa, and Oda(1) use collections from CA, United Kingdom, Nepal, and Japan.
Cap: 5-15(25)cm across, nearly round or convex becoming flat to slightly depressed; "dark brown to light brown, tan, dull yellowish, or paler", "often darker at center and paler toward margin"; with white to pale buff warts but these often washed off by rain, viscid when moist, margin usually striate, (Arora)
Flesh: firm; white, (Arora)
Gills: adnate to adnexed or free, close; white or pallid, (Arora), subgills numerous and end abruptly (Lindgren)
Stem: 5-15(20)cm x 1-3cm, widening downward or equal with basal bulb; white or aging buff; dry, usually scaly above ring, often scaly below ring, (Arora), VOLVA short, close-fitting cup with a short free edge (with an abrupt margin, flat collar, or rolled edge), white to pallid, (Lindgren), round bulb has a gutter-like margin, and usually one or more narrow rings of white veil immediately above it, (Kibby), band-like margin at top of stem bulb, typically rolled into stem, but occasionally free, sometimes with concentric bands on lower stem, (Lincoff), with 1-2 floccose-squamose zones above the bulb, (Breitenbach)
Veil: membranous, white, forming a superior or median skirt-like ring whose margin is often ragged or toothed, (Arora)
Odor: not distinct (Lindgren), pleasantly spicy (Breitenbach)
Taste: not distinct (Lindgren)
Microscopic spores: spores 9-13 x 6.5-9 microns, elliptic, smooth, inamyloid, (Arora), spores (8.8)9.8-14.2(16.5) x (5.5)6.5-9.2(11.0) microns; basidia 4-spored and occasionally 2-spored, 32-62 x 9.5-12.8 microns, clamp connections not observed, (Tulloss), spores 8.9-11.5 x 7.0-8.4 microns, elliptic-oval, smooth; basidia 4-spored, 47-60 x 10-15 microns, slenderly clavate, without basal clamp; pleurocystidia not seen, marginal cells 15-30 x 10-16 microns, subglobose, clavate; cap cuticle "composed of periclinal hyphae 1-6 microns wide, the uppermost hyphae strongly gelatinized, the deeper ones brownish-pigmented, septa without clamps", (Breitenbach)
Spore deposit: white (Arora)
Habitat / Range
single to scattered or gregarious on ground in woods, (Arora), spring, summer, fall, (Lindgren), January to April, September, (Tulloss)
Amanita pantherinoides has spores (8.1)8.5-11.2(12.2) x (6.0)6.3-7.7(8.5) microns, rare clamp connections on basidia, and volval remnants that suggest a relationship with Amanita gemmata (Tulloss(6)). Amanita 'gemmata' is similar and may intergrade or hybridize, but A. 'pantherina' 1) may be very large, 2) is usually duller and browner at center, 3) has a rim on bulb that tends to be better defined, 4) is commonly found in spring as well as in fall. Amanita calyptroderma is somewhat similar but if Amanita 'pantherina' has a continuous patch on the cap, it does not peel easily the way it does on A. calyptroderma - A. calyptroderma may hybridize with A. 'pantherina'.
poisonous, causing the pantherine syndrome (within 4 hours: nausea, clumsiness, confusion; later, sleep or coma, altered perception, muscle twitching), due to ibotenic acid and muscimol, deaths rare (at most 3 known in the last 50 years), (Benjamin)
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2021-05-10 6:23:54 PM
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