Evergreen with clustered fronds.
Narrowly lanceolate, 10-25 cm long, 0.7-1.5 cm wide; rachis winged with two wax-papery lines, reddish-brown throughout (except the green tip on youngest leaves); pinnae in pairs, egg-shaped to oblong egg-shaped, 5-15 mm long, 3-8 mm wide.
A variable species. Two chromosome races (diploid ssp. trichomanes and tetraploid ssp. quadrivalens D.E. Meyer) were reported from North America (Moran 1982, Wagner et al. 1993), but their distribution in British Columbia is poorly known and requires further study.
If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.
Illustration Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
|CWH(32), ICH(4), IDF(1)|
Source: Klinkenberg 2013
Synonyms and Alternate Names: