Widespread in seepage or wet sites, especially on calcareous substrata, from sea level to subalpine elevations. In openings in subalpine forest it frequents springs while at lower elevations it is frequent on cliffs near waterfalls. World Distribution
Widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, especially at arctic and boreal latitudes and in mountains, southward to mountains of Africa. In North America extending southward in mountains to Georgia in the east and to California in the west; also in Mexico and Guatemala.