Corylus cornuta var. californica Marshall
beaked hazelnut (California hazelnut)
Betulaceae (Birch family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

Photograph

© Bob Thacker     (Photo ID #88131)


Map

E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Corylus cornuta var. californica
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend

Species Information

General:
Deciduous shrub, 1-3 m tall with many stems, densely clumped or spreading by suckers; twigs sparsely to moderately hairy, sometimes glandular.
Leaves:
Alternate, deciduous, elliptic to oval, leaf blades heart-shaped with a sharp-pointed tip, doubly saw-toothed, paler below than above, 4-10 cm long, turning yellow in the fall.
Flowers:
Male flowers in catkins appearing before the leaves in spring; female flowers in a very small catkin with protruding red stigmas.
Fruits:
Edible hard-shelled nuts completely enclosed by bristly bractlets, in 2's or 3's at the end of branches, barely 1.5 cm long, thinly hairy or glabrous.
Notes:
Two varieties occur in BC:

1. Involucral beaks about twice as long as the fruit; silicles thinly short-hairy; twigs sparsely hairy............... var. cornuta

1. Involucral beaks about equal in length to the fruit; silicles glabrous; twigs hairy, sometimes glandular............... var. californica (A. DC.) Sharp

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

USDA Species Characteristics

Flower Colour:
Yellow
Blooming Period:
Early Spring
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Spring to Fall
Source:  The USDA

Ecology

Ecological Framework for Corylus cornuta var. californica

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class

Avg

Min

Max

Elevation (metres)
707 366 957
Slope Gradient (%)
22 0 81

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

146 0 350
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
4 2 5
Modal Nutrient Regime
Class
D
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
54
Modal BEC Zone Class
ICH

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

ICH(51), IDF(3)

Habitat and Range

Mesic sites in the lowland and montane zones; var. cornuta - common south of 57degreeN east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains, var. californica - frequent on S Vancouver Island and the lower Fraser Valley, becoming rare to the east; E to NF and S to GA (var. cornuta) and E to ID and S to CA (var. californica).

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia