Biennial or short-lived perennial herb from a taproot and often a stout, branched stem-base; stems erect, several, branched, glabrous, 10 to 100 cm tall.
Basal leaves soon deciduous; stem leaves alternate, closely and evenly toothed or entire, hairless, middle and upper mostly clasping, often sticky with resin.
Heads with ray and disk flowers, solitary or in a flat-topped cluster; ray flowers yellow, 25-40, 7-15 mm long; involucres 1-9 mm tall; involucral bracts strongly resinous, regularly graduated, the green tips reflexed.
Achenes nerved, usually squared off at the tip, glabrous, 2-3 mm long; pappus of several slender awns.
Three weakly defined varieties occur in BC and may be separated as follows:
1. Leaves entire or remotely toothed, the lower ones often irregularly toothed or somewhat pinnately cut.................... var. quasiperennis Lunell
1. Leaves closely and evenly toothed. 2. Upper and middle leaves 2-4 times as long as wide, mostly egg-shaped or oblong..................... var. squarrosa
2. Upper and middle leaves 5-8 times as long as wide, mostly linear-oblong to lanceolate.................. var. serrulata (Rydb.) Steyerm.
If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.
Illustration Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
|BG(7), IDF(7), PP(7)|
Source: Klinkenberg 2013