Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal
curly-cup gumweed (curlycup gumweed)
Asteraceae (Aster family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants


© Mark Gardiner     (Photo ID #66583)


E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Grindelia squarrosa
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend

Species Information

Biennial or short-lived perennial herb from a taproot and often a stout, branched stem-base; stems erect, several, branched, glabrous, 10 to 100 cm tall.
Basal leaves soon deciduous; stem leaves alternate, closely and evenly toothed or entire, hairless, middle and upper mostly clasping, often sticky with resin.
Heads with ray and disk flowers, solitary or in a flat-topped cluster; ray flowers yellow, 25-40, 7-15 mm long; involucres 1-9 mm tall; involucral bracts strongly resinous, regularly graduated, the green tips reflexed.
Achenes nerved, usually squared off at the tip, glabrous, 2-3 mm long; pappus of several slender awns.
Three weakly defined varieties occur in BC and may be separated as follows:

1. Leaves entire or remotely toothed, the lower ones often irregularly toothed or somewhat pinnately cut.................... var. quasiperennis Lunell

1. Leaves closely and evenly toothed. 2. Upper and middle leaves 2-4 times as long as wide, mostly egg-shaped or oblong..................... var. squarrosa

2. Upper and middle leaves 5-8 times as long as wide, mostly linear-oblong to lanceolate.................. var. serrulata (Rydb.) Steyerm.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.


Ecological Framework for Grindelia squarrosa

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres)
801 570 1270
Slope Gradient (%)
8 0 65

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

107 8 250
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
4 2 7
Modal Nutrient Regime
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

BG(7), IDF(7), PP(7)

Habitat and Range

Dry roadsides and disturbed areas in the steppe and montane zones; frequent in SC and SE BC (var. quasiperennis), infrequent in S and NE BC (var. serrulata and squarrosa), the latter two possibly introduced; E to MN and S to TX and CA.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia