Perennial herb from a woody stem-base or enlarged fibrous root; stems erect, simple or more often branched, several, often spreading-hairy below, exuding milky juice when broken, 15-60 cm tall.
Basal leaves oblanceolate, densely stiff-hairy, toothed or pinnately cut, 3-35 cm long, 5-70 mm wide; stem leaves mostly lacking, represented by minute bracts.
Heads with strap-shaped flowers, several in a terminal, flat-topped inflorescence; involucres 10-15 mm tall, at flowering, up to 25 mm in fruit, 2-4 cm wide; involucral bracts graduated, bristly-hairy or glabrous; ray flowers yellow.
Achenes nerved on the beak with minute projections, 4-7 mm long, inner ones with a well-developed beak shorter or longer than the body; pappus double, the inner ones of feathery bristles, the outer ones shorter and usually merely finely-barbed.
If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.
Illustration Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia
||Value / Class
Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
of field plots
species was recorded in:
BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in
|CDF(44), CWH(219), IDF(3), MH(8), PP(1)|
Source: Klinkenberg 2013