Juncus bufonius L.
toad rush
Juncaceae (Rush family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants


© Bryan Kelly-McArthur     (Photo ID #85479)


E-Flora BC Static Map

Distribution of Juncus bufonius
Click here to view the full interactive map and legend

Species Information

Annual herb from fibrous roots; stems erect or sprawling, 2-45 cm tall.
Located on the lower part of the stem, nearly circular in cross-section, lacking cross-walls.
Inflorescence terminal, open, commonly much branched, long, forming about 1/2 to 3/4 of the plant height, with many single flowers; perianth segments green, 2.5-6 mm long, pointed, about equal; stamens 6; anthers 0.5-1 mm long, shorter than the filaments; lower bract leaflike, nearly circular in cross-section, tapered, usually shorter than the inflorescence.
Capsules, cylindrical to nearly globe-shaped, pointed, shorter than the perianth segments; seeds barrel-like, about 0.4 mm long, lacking tail-like appendages.
Variable species with a large number of chromosomal races. Several taxa within this complex have been described and treated as distinct species or varieties.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


If more than one illustration is available for a species (e.g., separate illustrations were provided for two subspecies) then links to the separate images will be provided below. Note that individual subspecies or varietal illustrations are not always available.

USDA Species Characteristics

Flower Colour:
Blooming Period:
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall
Source:  The USDA


Ecological Framework for Juncus bufonius

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres)
545 2 1280
Slope Gradient (%)
1 0 8

Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]

261 254 270
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
6 5 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
# of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class

All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in

BG(1), CDF(2), CWH(3), PP(1), SBPS(2), SBS(3)

Habitat and Range

Wet open places, disturbed sites, fields, gardens, roadsides, lakeshores, riverbanks and forest margins in all vegetation zones except the alpine; common throughout BC; cosmopolitan, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to ME, MA, PA, NC, FL, MS, TX, NM, AZ and CA; Eurasia; apparently both native and introduced in our area.

SourceThe Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Synonyms and Alternate Names:
Juncus bufonius var. bufonius L.
Juncus bufonius var. halophilis