E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Juncus bufonius L.
toad rush
Juncaceae (Rush family)

Introduction to Vascular Plants

© Bryan Kelly-McArthur  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #85479)

E-Flora BC Static Map
Distribution of Juncus bufonius
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Species Information

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Annual herb from fibrous roots; stems erect or sprawling, 2-45 cm tall.
Located on the lower part of the stem, nearly circular in cross-section, lacking cross-walls.
Inflorescence terminal, open, commonly much branched, long, forming about 1/2 to 3/4 of the plant height, with many single flowers; perianth segments green, 2.5-6 mm long, pointed, about equal; stamens 6; anthers 0.5-1 mm long, shorter than the filaments; lower bract leaflike, nearly circular in cross-section, tapered, usually shorter than the inflorescence.
Capsules, cylindrical to nearly globe-shaped, pointed, shorter than the perianth segments; seeds barrel-like, about 0.4 mm long, lacking tail-like appendages.
Variable species with a large number of chromosomal races. Several taxa within this complex have been described and treated as distinct species or varieties.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia

USDA Species Characteristics

Flower Colour:
Blooming Period:
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall
Source:  The USDA

Habitat / Range

Wet open places, disturbed sites, fields, gardens, roadsides, lakeshores, riverbanks and forest margins in all vegetation zones except the alpine; common throughout BC; cosmopolitan, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF and S to ME, MA, PA, NC, FL, MS, TX, NM, AZ and CA; Eurasia; apparently both native and introduced in our area.

Source: The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia


Ecological Framework for Juncus bufonius

The table below shows the species-specific information calculated from
original data (BEC database) provided by the BC Ministry of Forests and Range.
(Updated August, 2013)

Site Information
Value / Class




Elevation (metres) 2 545 1280
Slope Gradient (%) 0 1 8
Aspect (degrees)
[0 - N; 90 - E; 180 - S; 270 - W]
254 261 270
Soil Moisture Regime (SMR)
[0 - very xeric; 4 - mesic;
8 - hydric]
5 6 8
Modal Nutrient Regime
Number of field plots
 species was recorded in:
Modal BEC Zone Class
All BEC Zones (# of stations/zone) species was recorded in: BG(1), CDF(2), CWH(3), PP(1), SBPS(2), SBS(3)


The climate type for this species, as reported in the: "British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database" (Meidinger et al. 2008), is not evaluated, unknown or variable.

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Juncus bufonius var. bufonius L.
Juncus bufonius var. halophilis

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References