General: Perennial herb from slender rhizomes, usually with stolons; stems erect, 3-20 cm tall, finely glandular-hairy, leafless or with a simple unstalked leaf near the base.
Leaves: Basal leaves heart- to kidney-shaped, 1-3 cm long, doubly round-toothed, sparsely hairy, at least above, long-stalked; stem leaves, if present, reduced, unstalked, occurring near the stem-base.
Flowers: Inflorescence a loosely flowered spike-like cluster of 3 to 12 flowers, blossoming upward, the flower stalks 2-6 mm long; petals greenish-yellow, about 4 mm long, the claw slender, the blades dissected into 8 linear, opposite segments; calyces broadly bell- to saucer-shaped, tubular portion joined to ovary; free hypanthium almost absent; calyx lobes 5, egg-shaped, blunt to pointed; stamens 10.
Moist to wet streambanks, meadows, thickets, swamps and forests in the lowland and montane zones; common throughout BC east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains; amphiberingian, N to SE AK, S YT and SW NT, E to NF and S to NH, PA, MI, IO, ND, MT and WA.
A shade-tolerant/intolerant, montane to subalpine, Asian and transcontinental North American forb (absent in the Pacific region). Occurs in continental boreal and cool temperate climates on fresh to moist, nitrogen-medium soils; its occurrence increases with increasing elevation and continentality. Sporadic in semi-open coniferous forests on water-shedding and water-receiving sites in the eastern coast-interior ecotone. Characteristic of continental forests.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2021-05-14 12:11:26 PM
The information contained in the E-Flora atlas pages is derived from expert
sources as cited in each section. This information is scientifically based.
E-Flora also acts as a portal to other sites via deep links. As
always, users should refer to the original sources for complete information.
E-Flora BC is not responsible for the accuracy or completeness of the