General: Perennial herb from a fleshy root mass; parasites on mycorrhizal fungi associated with trees; "stems" many, erect, simple, 5-30 cm tall, waxy-white, blackening with age; persistent after seed dispersal; without chlorophyll.
Leaves: Scale-like, linear or lanceolate to egg-shaped, up to 10 mm long; entire or somewhat wavy-margined.
Flowers: Inflorescence a terminal, solitary flower, curved to one side or even drooping, becoming erect in fruit; calyces and corollas similar; corollas narrowly bell-shaped, 15-20 mm long, the petals 5, pouch-like at the base, oblong spoon-shaped, more or less hairy within; calyces of 2 to 4 bract-like sepals or lacking; stamens shorter than the corolla; styles 2-5 mm wide; stigmas discoid-lobed.
Fruits: Capsules, erect, nearly globe-shaped, 5-7 mm long.
Notes: Stem and leaves can be considered part of the inflorescence.
A shade-tolerant, submontane to montane, Asian and transcontinental North American saprophyte. Occurs on fresh to moist, nitrogen-medium soils in montane boreal, wet temperate, and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence decreases with increasing latitude. Occurs sporadically in closed-canopy coniferous forests (most common on southern Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands) on water-shedding and water-receiving sites. Characteristic of mycorrhiza-rich Mor and acidic Moder humus forms.
Recommended citation: Author, Date. Page title. In Klinkenberg, Brian. (Editor) 2020. E-Flora BC:
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for
Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver. [Accessed:
2023-10-02 6:46:30 PM
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