E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia

Nephroma laevigatum Ach.
Mustard paw

Introduction to the Lichens

© Jim Riley  Email the photographer   (Photo ID #12354)

E-Flora BC Static Map
Distribution of Nephroma laevigatum
Details about map content are available here
Click on the map dots to view record details.

Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria map

Species Information

Click on the image below to view an expanded illustration for this species.

Illustration By: Trevor Goward

Common Name: The Paw Lichens. Alludes to the presence of brown, paw-like apothecia on the lower surface; in all other genera the apothecia are located over the upper surface or along the lobe margins.
Small to medium or large stratified foliose lichens, corticate above and below, sorediate or isidiate or not, lobes loosely appressed to loosely attached, short to elongate, averaging to 0.5–2 (–3) cm wide, thin. Upper surface greenish, greyish or brownish, dull or shiny. Lower surface pale to dark, naked or more or less covered in dense woolly tomentum, occasionally also tuberculate, lacking rhizines. Medulla white (yellow to orange). Photobiont green and/or blue-green.
Apothecia appressed over lower surface near lobe tips, disc brown; spores 4-celled, spindle-shaped, pale brown, 8 per ascus.
Over trees, logs, mossy rocks.
Notes: Nephroma is a cosmopolitan genus of about 40 species worldwide. Nine are known from North America and all occur in B.C. Although thin-layer chromatography has been used successfully in the elucidation of some Nephroma species (see for example James and White 1987), spot tests are of little taxonomic value in this genus.
Species description:
Photobiont a dark blue-green cyanobacterium; upper surface brownish, greyish, or if greenish, then also sorediate or isidiate; ecology and distribution various AND
Lower surface naked or minutely woolly, “woolliness” not obscuring fine details of surface wrinkles; soredia present or absent AND
Thallus lobulate, but lacking soredia or isidia (Note: lobules may, however, occasionally appear isidia-like; in this case “isidia” are usually borne singly) AND
Lobe margins and/or upper surface usually lobulate; upper surface naked or minutely woolly; medulla white or orange, K- or K+ reddish; apothecia present or absent; generally over rock AND
Medulla at least in part orange, K+ reddish; coastal
Medulla K+ reddish.
Various triterpenoids, an orange anthraquinone and various other substances.

Source: Lichens of British Columbia

Habitat / Range

Habitat: Frequent over rock and occasionally deciduous trees and shrubs in open coastal localities
World Distribution: incompletely circumpolar, S to CA.

Source: Lichens of British Columbia

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Nephroma laevigatum auct.
Nephroma lusitanicum Schaerer

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Links

Additional Range and Status Information Links

Additional Photo Sources

General References